2007年12月20日 星期四

"Sistine Madonna".

文化社会 | 2007.12.20

圣诞贺卡上的天使:我们来自德累斯顿

也许每个人都在圣诞贺卡或者精美的包装纸上都见到过这样两个粉嘟嘟,可爱的小天使。但是很少有人知道,他们是出自于意大利著名画家拉斐尔笔下名画“西斯廷圣母”的一部分。 而这幅画原件就在德累斯顿。德国之声德语网报导如下。

在圣诞节前,这两个著名的小天使再一次得到热切的关注。这对张着翅膀,有着大大眼睛,深棕色卷发的天使总被画在圣诞贺卡和包装纸上,同时他们也经常作为通俗艺术作品被复制临摹。

但是很少有人知道,这两个小天使实际上是拉斐尔“西斯廷圣母”名画下方的一部分,“他们根本都没有想到,这画是来自德累斯顿的。”专门收藏古典巨匠作品画廊的管理人员安德里亚斯.海宁这样说着。德累斯顿茨维格尔宫内的塞姆颇画廊其实就是这两个小家伙的家。

这幅画 是拉斐尔1512/13年完成的。1754年被人从位于Piacenza 的San Sisto修道院教堂运到了易北河畔。“它展现的是圣母怀抱着圣子慈爱地来到人间,画家用生动的画笔描绘了这两个天真、纯洁的小天使,最后再在上面加上几 片薄薄的云,以表现画的祥和。”了解情况的海宁如是说。

在萨克 逊王族选帝候奥古斯特三世后的50年,这幅画被人买走并运送到了德累斯顿,然后马上就有复制者迫不及待地开始复制圣母像了。“而仰望的小天使是在1803 年第一次由画家奥古斯特在一幅画布上单独复制出。”这一幅变两幅的画就被装饰在了卡塞尔威廉高地宫殿里。“没有仁慈的圣母像就没有小天使向上看的,与她对 视的眼神了。”海宁这样说着。

随着逐渐发展的技术和广告宣传,这两个天使很快就成为了艺术届最受人喜爱的主题。从最初的用费时费力的铜版画,钢版雕刻和木刻版画来复制他们,到如今用石板画、摄影,现在小天使用电脑只需一秒钟就可以轻松地被扫描和复印出来。

德累斯顿从19世纪开始就利用小天使的魅力来进行城市宣传。“没有用著名的广告媒体来宣传,是因为小天使只是个标志,它总与德累斯顿圣母教堂的剪影 相混淆。”如果有人刚好在西斯廷又在德累斯顿重新认出小天使的话,那么他们都会感到十分诧异。德累斯顿城市艺术品收藏从不对小天使做复制。“艺术是公共财 产”海宁说,“如果我们想以出售复制天使来盈利,那么我们是能筹到资金的,但是我们为辛苦得来的画又能做些什么呢? ”

德国之声版权所有

转载或引用请标明出处和作者

德国之声






Wikipedia article "Sistine Madonna".

Sistine Madonna

Raffael_051.jpg
Sistine Madonna
Raphael, 1513-1514
Oil on canvas
265 × 196 cm
Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden

The Sistine Madonna is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael, circa 1512-1514. It is housed in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (old masters) of Dresden, Germany.

The canvas with the Virgin, Child and Saints Sixtus and Barbara, usually called the Sistine Madonna, is chapoopracterized by an imaginary space created by the figures themselves. The figures stand on a bed of clouds, framed by heavy curtains which open to either side. The Virgin actually appears to descend from a heavenly space, through the picture plane, out into the real space in which the painting is hung. The gesture of St. Sixtus and the glance of St. Barbara seem to be directed toward the faithful, whom we imagine beyond the balustrade at the bottom of the painting. The Papal tiara, which rests on top of this balustrade, act as a bridge between the real and pictorial space.

The painting was probably intended to decorate the tomb of Pope Julius II, since St. Sixtus was the patron saint of the Della Rovere family and St. Barbara and the two winged 'genii' (visible at the bottom of the picture space) symbolize the funeral ceremony. The canvas was located in the convent of St Sixtus in Piacenza and was later donated by the monks to Augustus III of Saxony. It was carried to Moscow after the Second World War, and was later returned to Dresden.








2007年12月12日 星期三

Chemnitz


Chemnitz

Jewish Life in Chemnitz

The German city of Chemnitz in the state of Saxony has been making headlines recently as the birthplace of Germany's first Kosher beer. Called "Simcha," it was created by the brothers Lars-Ariel and Uwe Dziuballa. While the two Jewish restaurant owners are pleased with the sudden media interest, they are also disappointed that the issue of Jewish integration is of less public interest than beer. The brothers say that while beer might be normal to Germans, Jewish life is less so.

Bilbao, 10 Years Later


Art | 05.12.2007

Otto Dix in Chemnitz: Major Art for a Minor Town

The eastern German city of Chemnitz made a big-league art acquisition when it lured a major collection of Otto Dix paintings to a new home there. The deal is part of the town's overall move to make a cultural comeback.

In an amazing coup, down-and-out Chemnitz beat stronger rivals like Leipzig, Dresden and Stuttgart to acquire the private collection of Munich gallery owner Alfred Gunzenhauser.

The 2,945 piece collection -- itself a surprise as few people knew of its existence -- includes 290 artworks by New Objectivist painter Otto Dix, numerous works by Expressionists such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, and more.

Portrait, Munich gallery owner GunzenhauserBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: An eye for art: Gunzenhauser found a home for his collection

From the various cities that showed interest, which included Stuttgart and Berlin as well as Saxony neighbors Leipzig and Dresden, Gunzenhauser selected Chemnitz as a home for his collection, after the town offered to create a permanent home for the artworks.

Strength in numbers

The Gunzenhauser Museum was dedicated on Dec. 1, 2004.

"Chemnitz was the first city that could offer the collection its own house," said Thomas Freidrich, the Gunzenhauser Museum's curator.

"It is only by showing the core of the collection all together that the works can be best appreciated," he said. "Until now, many of the paintings were unknown. Now that they are being shown together, we are realizing what an absolute treasure we have on our hands."

Officials hope the creation of a world-class modern art museum will help bring back some of the former glory to Chemnitz, a city with a dwindling population and 10 percent unemployment.

Artistic tradition in Chemnitz

Art in Chemnitz has a "long and deeply rooted" tradition, Friedrich explained.

Visitors view Johannes Grützke's painting Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Many German artists are repesented in the collection, including Johannes Grützke

"Around the end of the 19th century, business -- mostly textiles -- in Chemnitz was booming," he said. "Industrialists invested a lot of money in art and architecture. As a result, art and architecture flourished."

In the 1920s, the Galerie der Moderne showed works by Expressionists and Die Brücke -- the most modern artists of the time.

But then came the double blows of the Nazis' destruction of "degenerate art," followed by the bleak years under communist rule, when the city became known as Karl- Marx Stadt. It has yet to recover, financially or culturally.

Yet today, the third-largest city in the struggling state of Saxony is working hard to re-establish its reputation as a cultural mecca. The city's recently adopted motto is "Chemnitz -- The Modern City," -- referring in part to the city's deep roots in the modernist movements of the 1920s. It is an image Ingrid Mössinger, the director of the city's art collections, has gone to almost superhuman lengths to support.

Mössinger's many coups

One of Mössinger's earliest art-world successes was snagging the international blockbuster Picasso and His Women for Chemnitz's art museum, the Kunstsammlung Chemnitz. She also conceived and curated a current show of paintings by singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, which will eventually travel to New York and other destinations.

A "series of fortunate events" between 2002 and 2003 led to the acquisition of Gunzenhauser's collection, Friedrich explained.

Gunzenhauser Museum buildingBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: The building's expressionist architecture suits the collecton, many say

"It was Chemnitz's good luck that just at the time when Mr. Gunzenhauser was looking for a home for his works, the right people with the right means came together and made that happen," Friedrich said.

First of all, Mössinger got wind that the collection was available. Then she got the needed support from Chemnitz's then-mayor. Finally, a local savings bank moved out of its downtown headquarters, leaving an empty building just waiting to be renovated into a museum.

A perfect match

The Expressionist facade of the new museum matches well with the content, Friedrich says. And in Chemnitz, the collection has a chance to come into its own -- moreso than if it had gone to a city with a more developed museum scene.

"If he had given his collection to a gallery in Munich or Berlin, the collection would have barely been noticed, considering how much art those cities already have," Friedrich said. "Mr. Gunzenhauser certainly wanted his collection to get the most attention possible ."

Not only will the collection benefit from its connection to Chemnitz, but, organizers hope, Chemnitz will benefit from the collection.

In general, investing in art as a means of boosting the economy has become a common tactic for European cities. Among the first to do so was Bilbao -- and to great effect. The industrial town in northern Spain underwent a renaissance after it opened its Frank Gehry-designed Guggenheim Museum. The phenomenon soon got the name "the Bilbao effect."

Possible 'Bilbao effect'

"Its possible Chemnitz could experience some 'Bilbao effect' from this museum," the curator conceded.

Chemnitz museums director Irene Mössinger showing Bob Dylan paintingsBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Ingrid Mössinger was first to bring Dylan paintings to the public

"In terms of being an art city, Chemnitz has been behind Dresden and Leipzig up to now. But through the Gunzenhauser collection, I imagine that the tables have turned, and now people will recognize Chemnitz as a serious city of art and culture…. We are expecting tourism to improve here as a result."

Friedrich added that since the museum opened, he has been deluged by requests for information about how to get to the city, museum opening hours, catalogs, and people wanting to know how to give coupons for exhibit tickets as Christmas presents.

But whether the positive effect will be long-term or short-lived remains to be seen, he said.

"Of course, we'll do our best to see that it lasts . The collection certainly has enough potential to stay fresh for the long term."

Jennifer Abramsohn

2007年12月9日 星期日

36 Hours in Beijing

這是上周紐約時報的"北京36小時 建議"
我想還是貼在這兒 供大家參考
(現在用外地的電腦 功能不相同)


36 Hours in Beijing

Aaron and Mimi Kuo-Deemer

By JAKE HOOKER
Published: December 9, 2007
BEIJING can feel chaotic and sprawling, especially as it races to finish Olympic construction before the Games begin on Aug. 8. But there's an ancient order to the place, a cosmology, and you can follow it. The palaces and temples line up like stars on the city's south-north axis. The government chose to build the Olympic Stadium on the axis, too. All over town there are digital billboards with a countdown to the Games. Down to the second. But wait. Besides the cranes and compact cars and floating particulate matter, everything essential about the city — its tall vermilion walls, its septuagenarians flying kites on bridges, its pigeons — has been there all along.

Skip to next paragraph
Beijing Travel Guide
Where to Stay
Where to Eat
What to Do
Go to the Beijing Travel Guide »
Multimedia
Map
Beijing, China
Slide Show
Weekend in Beijing

Friday
3:30 p.m.1) GREEN GETAWAY
Once the private garden of Ming and Qing emperors, Beihai, set beside the Forbidden City, may be the most beautiful public park in China. There are Buddhist temples by the lake, the footpaths lined with willow trees, and the provincial tour groups wearing identical baseball hats. The northern entrance to a private garden called Jingxinzhai (24 Dianmen Xidajie; 86-10-6406-2279; www.beihaipark.com.cn) closes at 4 p.m. in winter and an hour later in summer, so first visit this private world of pavilions, fish ponds and rock gardens. Sometimes an orchestra gathers by the big lake, and the locals sing songs, drink tea from thermoses and read about the stock market and price of eggs in the Beijing Evening News. There is an inward tendency in the Chinese character, and these walled gardens were designed to shut away the outside world.

5:30 p.m.2) THE CENTER OF THE WORLD
After your respite, see the heart of the city on foot. After taking in the scale of the Forbidden City from outside the north moat, follow the narrow street, Beichang Jie, under the dark leaning scholar trees. You'll pass by What? (72 Beichang Jie; 86-133-4112-2757), a tiny rock bar that affords sidewalk wicker chairs and a glimpse of street life: migrant workers, high school students, young soldiers and black Audis with tinted windows keeping watch over the sealed leadership compound of Zhongnanhai. At the southern end of the street, turn left onto the Avenue of Eternal Peace, and walk east along the boulevard, past past the soldiers clearing Tiananmen Square, and the lovers in the shadows of the big trees . You are in the center of the city, which, in the Chinese mind, is at the center of the world. And it feels that way.

8 p.m.3) DUCK FOR DINNER
The headless ducks hang from black hooks, ready for the brick ovens. Eleven Chinese cooks in dark pinstriped pants handle them with long poles, with a grouping of little porcelain ducklings looking on. The dining room of the Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant (22 Dongsishitiao; 86-10-5169-0328) is rowdy, as Chinese restaurants are supposed to be, and the braised eggplant is sweet and good. The skin of the lean bird is crisp, and its meat — wrapped in a thin pancake with spring onions and a sweet dark sauce — washes down nicely with red wine or beer.

10 p.m.4) ANTIQUES AND SANGRIA
Beijing's best known bar strip, the Sanlitun neighborhood, is a playground for hookers, expatriates and Nigerian drug dealers. Instead, take a cab to the Drum and Bell Towers, and slip into the hutongs, or historic alleys, heading north, toward Bed Bar (17 Zhangwang Hutong; 86-10-8400-1554). Look for a red lantern down a long, quiet lane. A converted machine-parts factory decorated with antique furniture and paintings of the old city, Bed is a pleasant place to drink sangria, talk with friends, and drink more sangria. If you're with a group, reserve a private room overlooking the courtyard.

Saturday
9:30 a.m.5) RITUALS, OLD AND NEW
Built by the Ming emperor Yongle in 1420, the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests is a masterpiece of Chinese religious architecture. The hall was one of many altars inside the kingdom's largest complex for ritual sacrifice, the Temple of Heaven, or Tiantan (86-10-6702-8866; www.tiantanpark.com/cn). Twenty-two emperors came here to make sacrifices to heaven, affirming their divine role as ruler and shaman. Nowadays, in the Long Corridor through which ritual offerings once passed, crowds of retirees play poker, Hacky Sack and the two-stringed erhu.

Noon6) DOSE OF REALITY
The government understands that the sacred axis of the imperial city will also be the axis for tourists this summer and is preparing accordingly. Go north from the west gate of the Temple of Heaven and you will be impressed by the tidiness, the fresh paint, the grassy lawns. But wander down any of the hutongs of the Qianmen area, south of Tiananmen Square, and you may have a different — and more textured — impression. A battlefield between developers and conservationists, this famous neighborhood of provincial guilds, opera houses, bordellos and hot pot restaurants is in epic flux. Some hutongs have been razed, and some still bustle with cheap restaurants, backpackers, butcher shops and crowded courtyard homes. The nearby Beijing Planning Exhibition Hall (20 Qianmen Dongdajie; 86-10-6702-4559; www.bjghzl.com.cn) puts the conflict in context.

1 p.m.7) SOUTHERN COOKING
Kong Yiji serves food from Shaoxing, a southern town famous for its wines, bridges and canals. The restaurant (322 Dongsi Beidajie; 86-10- 6404 0507) is named after the failed scholar (and tavern crawler) of the Lu Xun short story. The aniseed-flavored kidney beans and scallion oil yellow fish are good, and a meal for two costs about 150 yuan, $20 at 7.5 yuan to the dollar, without the sweet yellow rice wine. After lunch, hop a cab to the lake district, where you can climb either the Drum or Bell Tower (Zhonglouwan Hutong; 86-10-6401-2674) and take in the cluttered courtyards, the crazy flying pigeons and the endless sprawl of buildings to the Western Hills.

4 p.m.8) A STUDY IN QUIET
For centuries, the top young scholars on civil service examinations went to the Guozijian, or Imperial Academy (15 Guozijian Jie; 86-10-8402-7224), to study Confucian classics and learn to write in a beautiful hand. Today, it is a quiet place to read a book or just sit by the pavilion where the emperor gave his annual lectures. High school seniors are dragged there by their parents in June to pray for good college test scores.


7:30 p.m.9) KARMA SERVED MEATLESS
Pure Lotus (China Wenlian Courtyard, Changhong Bridge; 86-10-6592-3627) is a vegetarian restaurant whose décor — a lotus motif stenciled from Silk Road grottoes, an altar of fresh flowers, candles in bamboo holders — seems destined for Manhattan. Loyal to the monastic ethic, the restaurant serves no alcohol, and Chinese customers address the robed monk who runs the joint as “shifu,” or master. Try the creamy pumpkin porridge and the zen spicy stewed vegetarian fish, a Sichuanese number. A meal for two, with a pot of green tea, is about 300 yuan. The dishes have ridiculous karmic names (“Destiny Comes Together as a Cold Plate,” “Yoga Apple Salad”) and some are served amid floral bouquets and dried ice mists, so cynical thoughts should be channeled. Reserve a table in the beautiful main dining room, where the servers sing folk songs.


11 p.m.10) A LITTLE NIGHT MUSIC
Centro (1 Guanghua Lu; 86-10-6561-8833 extension 42; www.shangri-la.com) is a lounge in the Kerry Centre Hotel in the desolate central business district where Western men in pinstriped suits and Chinese women with pearls drink, flirt and listen to jazz standards. The younger, and more adventurous, will head to faraway D-22, a rock club in the city's university district (242 Chengfu Road; 86-10-6265-3177; www.d22beijing.com). In a country where the radio waves are controlled by the party and love songs by pretty girls are ubiquitous, rock 'n' roll is still considered esoteric. The house bands at D-22 — Carsick Cars, Hedgehog and others — are trying to change that.
Sunday


10 a.m.11) CAPITALISM AT WORK
The Panjiayuan “antiquities” market (18 Huaweili; 86-10-6774-1869; www.panjiayuan.com) is a lively weekend meeting of scam artists and tourists. Bronze tripods from the northern plains, teapots made from special sand in Jiangsu province, 1920s cigarette posters from Shanghai — anything remotely of interest to collectors has been carefully manufactured and, to the rare fool, will be sold for real prices. There's authentic stuff, too. On the plaza's edge, Cultural Revolution shops sell the souvenirs of 1966-76, including black and white photos from discarded family albums — detritus of a city in flux.


The Basics
Beijing Capital International Airport is scheduled to open its new Terminal 3 in time for the Olympics. Round-trip direct flights on Continental, from Newark, or Air China (a code share with United), from Kennedy Airport, run about $950, though fares will certainly rise by summer. (An early December online search for a round-trip ticket to Beijing around the time of the Games showed fares starting above $2,200.)


Taxis from Capital airport cost about 100 yuan, about $13 at 7.5 yuan to the dollar, and come the Olympics, budget travelers will be able to take a new airport express rail link to the subway at Dongzhimen.
The Grand Hyatt (1 Dong Changan Jie; 86-10-8518-1234; www.beijing.grand.hyatt.com) is within walking distance of the Forbidden City, Tiananmen Square and many interesting hutong neighborhoods. Doubles are 1,450 to 3,500 yuan.

For a hutong courtyard experience, try Hotel Côté Cour SL (70 Yanyue Hutong; 86-10-6512-8020; www.hotelcotecoursl.com), starting at 1,295 yuan, or the Bamboo Garden (24 Xiaoshiqiao Lane; 86-10-5852-0088; www.bbgh.com.cn), a Qing official's mansion, from 880 yuan.
Room rates are expected to double or even triple for the Olympics; at the Bamboo garden, they start at 3,000 yuan for those weeks.

2007年12月4日 星期二

鬼怒川


鬼怒川橡膠將把福州工厂的車体密封零件產能翻番
  鬼怒川橡膠工業計划到2010年將中國福州工厂(福建省)的橡膠車体密封零件的產能提高至目前的2倍。將擴大工厂面積并增設生產線。估計投資金額包括厂房和設備在內近1億日元。產品將滿足美國福特汽車和三菱汽車等日益增加的需求……

標題又是鬼又是番 簡直邪門.....

日光溫泉/日光鬼怒川/鬼怒川溫泉/Kinugawa Onsen/
鬼怒川沿岸是日光著名溫泉鄉,同時附近一帶還有不少旅遊景點和主題遊樂園, ...
或許該參考看
日本國際觀光振興機構
不要忘記點圖進去"鬼怒川公園"站等


鬼怒川溫泉·奧鬼怒
map
沿著鬼怒川溪谷的溫泉鄉
被譽爲“秘湯”之鄉的奧鬼怒
鬼怒川溫泉位於流經櫪木縣中部的鬼怒川上游,大日向山和釋迦嶽之間的溪谷沿岸。自開發以來歷經 300 多年而形成的溫泉鄉,春有漫山遍野的杜鵑花,秋有絢爛耀眼的紅葉,使溪谷美景錦上添花。
鬼怒川溫泉和上游的川治溫泉之間有長約 3 公里的龍王峽溪谷。這裏分佈著許多瀑布和奇岩,修建起一條龍王峽自然研究路,遊人可以一邊散步一邊觀賞雄渾壯美的景色。另外,還可以坐船,花 40 分鐘順鬼怒川急流而下,沿途可眺望高達 100 米的峭壁,尤其是秋天的紅葉季節,這裏的觀光客絡繹不絕。


奧鬼怒是分佈在鬼怒沼山東南、是鬼怒川水源地帶溫泉的總稱,其中有八丁之湯、加仁湯、手白澤、川俁等著名溫泉,被譽爲“秘湯”之鄉。另外,在連接女夫渕溫泉和鬼怒沼的徒步遊覽路──“奧鬼怒自然研究路”的周圍有大小 48 個湖沼,夏天在這裏可以盡情地觀賞濕原上盛開的各種高山植物。
■ 交通
乘坐東武伊勢崎、日光線、鬼怒川線特快從淺草車站(東京)到鬼怒川溫泉東站約 1 小時 30 分鐘。乘坐巴士從鬼怒川溫泉車站到奧鬼怒溫泉鄉約 1 小時 46 分鐘。


"Samarkand" 或 Samarqand

撒馬爾罕[地名] 中亞第一古城

Wikipedia article "Samarkand".


撒馬爾罕

[编辑首段]维基百科,自由的百科全书

跳转到: 导航, 搜索
撒馬爾罕的清真寺
撒馬爾罕的清真寺

撒马尔罕乌茲別克语:Samarqand或Самарқанд)是中亞地區的歷史名城,現在是乌兹别克斯坦的舊都兼第二大城市、撒马尔罕州首府,有人口40萬。Самар意为“肥沃”,қанд意为“土地”,撒馬爾罕意为“肥沃的土地”;耶律楚材说:“寻思干者西人云肥也,以地土肥饶故名之。[1]

[编辑] 歷史

撒马尔罕建立于公元前3世纪的西汉时期。由于地处絲綢之路上中国和中东的交界處,使當地成為兩地貨物的交流地,並促使當地經濟繁盛。

魏书》称为悉万斤,《隋书·西域记》称为康国,唐慧超往五天竺国传》作康国[2],唐杜环经行记〉作康国、萨末建[3],《新唐书》称为康国、萨秣建,元耶律楚材西游录》作寻思干[4],《长春真人西游记》作邪米思干,《元史》作薛迷思加,明陈诚西域番国志[5]、《明史》、明严从简《殊域周咨录》均作撒马儿罕[6]

撒马尔罕曾經是花剌子模的首都。當年成吉思汗攻打撒马尔罕之時,8 天後破城。所以在撒马尔罕陷落之後,成吉思汗下令屠城。和伊斯蘭教長有關係的五萬人可留在城內。其他不出城的格殺勿論。下令把十萬康里人處死,其他人用二十萬第納爾贖金免死。

[编辑] 参考文献

  1. (元)耶律楚材《西游录
  2. 慧超往五天竺国传》第三十四节
  3. 杜环经行记》第二节
  4. 耶律楚材《西游录》上
  5. 陈诚《西域番国志·撒马儿罕》
  6. 严从简《殊域周咨录》十五卷《撒马儿罕》


2007年12月2日 星期日

廷巴克图(Timbuktu),现名通布图(Tombouctou)

英國巧克力燃料車穿越撒哈拉

巧克力又有新用途
巧克力又有新用途

英國兩位環保主義者駕駛著一輛以巧克力為燃料的特制卡車,開始了穿越撒哈拉沙漠的冒險之旅。

這輛福特卡車裝載了由4,000公斤的巧克力製成的2,000升生物燃料,這相當於8萬條巧克力棒。

但這種燃料看上去或聞起來並不像我們平時吃到的巧克力。它是從廢制的巧克力中提取可可油,混合了甲醇和燒鹼製成的。

本次旅行行程約6,500公里。他們從英格蘭出發,穿過法國和西班牙,途經撒哈拉沙漠,最終抵達位於西非的目的地--位於馬里的歷史名城廷巴克圖(Timbuktu)。Wikipedia article "Timbuktu".

他們的旅行得到了英國一家專門將回收的巧克力轉化成綠色能源的公司(Ecotec)的支持。

兩位冒險家,工程師安迪﹒佩格和電工約翰﹒格雷姆肖希望借此行提高人們對可以減少碳排放量的可再生性生物能源的認識。

他們說,"廷巴克圖正在被擴大化的沙漠吞噬,這是全球變暖的惡劣後果。"

"如果我們可以順利到達,這證明人們也可以將同樣的燃料用於外出交通。"



Wikipedia article "Timbuktu".

维基百科,自由的百科全书

跳转到: 导航, 搜索
坐标北纬16度46分29秒,西经3度0分23秒
廷巴克图地理位置
廷巴克图地理位置

廷巴克图(Timbuktu),现名通布图(Tombouctou),是西非马里共和国的一个城市,位于撒哈拉沙漠南缘,尼日尔河北岸,历史上曾是伊斯兰文化中心之一,现在的居民主要为桑海族、此外还有图阿雷格族阿拉伯人。人口大约有两万人。

当地气候属热带沙漠气候,全年气候干热,平均气温近30摄氏度

廷巴克图的的地理位置位于北非阿拉伯人柏柏尔人文明和黑非洲黑人文明的交汇点,因此商业往来频繁,民族成分复杂,历史上是一个交通要道、文化中心,许多穆斯林学者和圣徒在此定居,许多著名的书籍是从这里写出和流传的。

最早在10世纪时,廷巴克图就是一个图阿雷格人的季节性聚居地,由于其位于水陆交通要道,黄金象牙奴隶食盐在此集散,逐渐成为一个富庶的城市。时该城被加纳帝国统治,同时被所有周围邻居所觊觎。1324年马里帝国占领了廷巴克图。1468年桑海帝国又征服了廷巴克图,并沿着尼日尔河扩大自己的领土,廷巴克图很快就成为桑海帝国的中心城市。当地的商业、文化臻于鼎盛。1591年,用从欧洲人那里得到的火器武装的摩洛哥人占领了廷巴克图。1670年又被班巴拉王国统治。1787年图阿雷格人卷土重来。1894年法国占为殖民地要塞,成为法属西非的首府。1960年,归属于新独立的马里共和国,成为北部通布图区的首府。20世纪90年代当地图阿雷格人暴动,要建立自己的城市国家,直到1996年才完全平复。

桑克尔清真寺的大门
桑克尔清真寺的大门

16世纪18世纪时,廷巴克图是非洲的一个文化中心,有多所伊斯兰学校,每所学校都由一位伊玛目独立领导,教导古兰经,还包括逻辑学天文学历史等科目,学者们著书立说。这里的图书馆收集了大量的著作,包括西非文明的最高成就。最多时有120所图书馆。所以当时西非谚语说:“盐来自北方,黄金来自南方,阿拉的教导和智慧的宝藏来自廷巴克图。”廷巴克图的财富传说刺激了欧洲人来此探险,殖民者占领廷巴克图后,大量的文献掠夺到巴黎伦敦等地,也有的被藏入沙漠洞窟中。

从欧洲人到达后,海上商业道路通航,廷巴克图的地位下降,失去了往日的繁华,现在只是一个贫穷的城市。但由于其历史的光辉,仍然是吸引旅游者观光的地点,同时也是七座伊斯兰教圣城之一。目前廷巴克图的观光的点包括有1327年修建的琼盖拉柏清真寺、已经成为一座博物馆的修建于15世纪西蒂雅哈清真寺和曾经是一所大学的桑克尔清真寺

琼盖拉柏清真寺
琼盖拉柏清真寺

Warsaw 華沙

warsaw~ワルシャワ~

-

UNIWERSYTET WARSZAWSKI (WARSAW), ..

波兰首都华沙(Warsaw)位于波兰中部平原,维斯瓦(Vistula) 河由南向北纵贯市区。它地势低洼,气候温和,雨量适中,年平均降水量为500毫米,是波兰的鱼米之乡。 ...

EU-Capitals: The Polish Capital Warsaw - A city on the River Vistula

Most foreign tourists heading for
Poland pick the southern historic city of Krakow as their prime destination. This is not surprising, considering the many landmarks it boasts, and its unique atmosphere. But Warsaw, which has been the Polish capital since 1569, also has a lot to offer: Since the end of communism it has undergone some major changes. Many buildings in the old town have been restored, entertainment and services have been transformed to match those of other western capitals. But Warsaw is also a city that again and again reminds the visitor of the recent past. (Reporter: Rafal Kiepuczewski)


The official website of the City of Warsaw


Wikpedia
http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%8D%8E%E6%B2%99

網誌存檔