2008年7月30日 星期三

Columbia 大學 科技史一瞥

人多以母校貴。胡適先生在195368日的日記錄 World Telegram的新聞:Columbia Started the Atomic Age 「其中記1938年底至19391……」(胡適日記全集 - Google Books Result9 31--他說當時科學家雲集該大學實為 independent convergence一例)

當然胡適博士忘掉當時那傲報紙已改名 如下說明

In 1950, the World-Telegram acquired the remains of another afternoon paper, the New York Sun, to become the New York World-Telegram and Sun. The writer A.J. Liebling described the "and Sun" portion of the combined publication's masthead as resembling the tail feathers of a canary on the chin of a cat.

2008/7/31早上在BBC看到連載的 The Long Goodbye 談失智之問題

主要是Columbia大學為主導的找其基因之專案 TAUB
The Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain is the
... The institute brings together Columbia university researchers and ...


英國主要報章頭版今天(7月30日)各說各話。

《每日電訊報》和小報《每日郵報》報道,新一代的老人痴呆症(阿耳茨海默氏病)藥物可以逆轉患者的症狀。

《每日電訊報》說,新研製的藥物"rember"能夠恢復腦部最受影響部分的功能,作進一步研究的話,這藥物還有可能防止老人痴呆症的出現。

老人痴呆症腦部掃描圖象
老人痴呆症患者的腦部掃描圖象

報道引述了其中一名試用這種新藥的患者的太太說,她的丈夫服用這新藥物後,能夠妥當安排自己要做的事情。

《每日郵報》說,新藥物可望在四年內推出,但英國國民保健醫療計劃有沒有資源購買這種藥物將令人關注。

英國的老人痴呆症患者達到40萬,隨著人口老化,預料患者數目將會繼續增加。








2008年7月29日 星期二

1964 德国史上第一个“革命性”露天音乐节

Ruine Balduinseck between Mastershausen and Buch
Wikipedia article "Hunsrück".

The Hunsrück is a low mountain range in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is bounded by the river valleys of the Moselle (north), the Nahe (south), and the Rhine (east). The Hunsrück is continued by the Taunus mountains on the eastern side of the Rhine. In the north behind the Moselle it is continued by the Eifel. To the south of the Nahe, the Palatinate is to be found.

Many of the hills are not higher than 400 m. There are several chains of higher peaks within the Hunsrück, all bearing names on their own: the (Schwarzwälder) Hochwald, the Idarwald, the Soonwald, and the Binger Wald. The highest peak is the Erbeskopf (816 m).

Notable towns located within the Hunsrück include Simmern, Kirchberg, and Idar-Oberstein, Kastellaun, and Morbach. Frankfurt-Hahn Airport, a growing low-fare carrier and cargo airport is also located within the region.

The climate in the Hunsrück is characterised by rainy weather. Slate is mined in the mountains.

The German TV drama trilogy Heimat, directed by Edgar Reitz, examined the 20th-century life of a small fictional village in the Hunsrück.

External links

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文化社会 | 2008.07.28

德国史上第一个“革命性”露天音乐节

1964年初夏的一次露天音乐节写下了德国音乐史上革命性的一章,奏响了六八年激情学运的政治乐章,但是当时谁也没能料到这一点。

1964年的降灵节周末,在德国小城珲斯吕克(Hunsrueck)的瓦尔德艾克城堡举行了一个名为"流行歌曲与民歌国际音乐节-欧洲青年 在歌唱"的活动。虽然号称国际,台上的歌手也不过只有十来位,台下捧场的观众也不过只有400余号人。这场当时十分不起眼的活动的标志性意义在于,这是德 国战后首次又出现用德语演唱的切合时下社会运动的流行歌曲。此后,这一音乐节形成传统,吸引了一批德国歌曲创作者参加,例如1966年有弗兰茨-约瑟夫. 德根哈特、汉纳斯.瓦德尔和瓦尔特.默斯曼等歌曲家在音乐节上引如所谓的"批评歌曲"。1967年,音乐节打出的主题口号是"积极参与的歌曲",当时的重 大政治与社会事件都成为歌曲家创造的题材,如大联合政府、紧急状态法、越南战争、左派领袖鲁迪.杜契克(Rudi Dutschke)和德国社会主义学生联盟和在游行中被打死的学生贝诺.奥内索格(Beno Ohnesorg)等都成为歌曲家关注的对象。

大学生贝诺.奥内索格在1967年6月的一次街头抗议骚乱中被警方打死Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 大学生贝诺.奥内索格在1967年6月的一次街头抗议骚乱中被警方打死

瓦尔德艾克城堡的音乐节从始自六十年代初、具有民权运动背景的美国"新港民间音乐节(Newport Folk Festival)"吸取了灵感。1968年,美国民权运动的激进思想影响了德国瓦尔德艾克城堡的音乐节,弗兰茨-约瑟夫.德根哈特在音乐节上唱道:"阶 级斗争要立场鲜明,模棱两可就是矫情。"在六八学运的疾风暴雨中,音乐节越来越像是一场政治集会,活动的主办者与参与者似乎觉得唱歌已经不过瘾,开始频频 作出行动决议,出售红宝书"毛主席语录",搭帐篷拉红旗,高唱"国际歌"。

1968年的瓦尔德艾克城堡音乐节作出一项决议,宣布该音乐节是国际抗议运动的一部分,对法国的工人与学生抗议运动表示政治声援。当时音乐节的的骨 干分子汉纳斯.瓦德尔如今认为,当时太过于政治化了。他说:"当时进行了大辩论,提出各种政治主张,各种政治色彩的团体纷纷亮相。"他回忆说,当时有人呼 吁"放下你们手中的吉它",这样的口号"反映了当时德国的状况,反映了上世纪60年代末期的总的激荡的政治格局"。

讨论政治决议:音乐节的艺术家们变成了革命家Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 讨论政治决议:音乐节的艺术家们变成了革命家

1969年的瓦尔德艾克城堡音乐节是最后一次的"革命盛筵",垮掉一代乐队和地下乐队主宰了音乐节的风格,唱歌已经成为了次要的活动,更重要的是政 治讨论会和"革命讲堂"。这一届音乐节之后,它的主办者们似乎折腾够了,开始去干别的。很多音乐人借瓦尔德艾克城堡音乐节出足了风头后样扬长而去,那些要 将革命进行到底的干将则开始觉得珲斯吕克小城太乡下,他们转而去寻求更大的舞台。当时的"科隆环视报"总结说:"一个著名的音乐节在五年之后演变成为一个 院外反对团体。瓦尔德艾克已经不复存在。"

2008年7月28日 星期一

36 Hours in Palermo

36 Hours in Palermo

Chris Warde-Jones for The New York Times

The 12th-century Duomo displays Greek and Byzantine mosaic work.


Published: July 27, 2008

IN its 2,700-year history, the port city of Palermo has undergone three golden ages: the Carthaginians, Arabs and Normans all found glory along its rugged shores. And now, after decades of post-War neglect and mafia corruption, the often overlooked Sicilian capital is poised for a fourth — or at least a well-deserved comeback. Crumbling roads are being repaved, landmarks scrubbed clean and a newfound pride can be felt. But the essential charms of this mysterious and intoxicating city thankfully remain intact. There are still seductive old neighborhoods, a delightful patchwork of architecture (what’s the word for Arab-Norman-Spanish-Baroque?), and a belching chaotic mess known as Palermo traffic.

Friday

4 p.m.
1) BREAD AND CIRCUS

The ancient city is studded with vibrant and raucous outdoor markets. Mix with residents shopping for weekend essentials in the Ballarò, the city’s oldest Arab-style open market in the decrepit yet atmospheric Albergheria quarter. Join the crowds at either end (enter through Piazza Ballarò or Piazza del Carmine) and browse stalls with all types of fish still twitching on trays of ice, alongside crates of squash as long as didgeridoos and capers the size of grapes. If the vendors who perform like carnival barkers aren’t entertainment enough, grab a piping-hot panelle, a street-food fritter made of chickpeas (about 5 euros, or $8 at $1.62 to the euro).

5:30 p.m.
2) DIVINE ARCHITECTURE

It wouldn’t be a trip to Italy without a dip into a magnificent church. Make a 10-or-so-minute walk north to Piazza Bellini in the old city’s center and ascend the steps to a pair of famed houses of worship. The Church of San Cataldo (Piazza Bellini 2), a rather nondescript diminutive chapel, is best appreciated from the outside, where one can take in its three Saracen cardinal-red domes. But a few steps away is the Church of Santa Maria Dell’Ammiraglio, a k a La Martorana, which offers a quintessential blend of Arab-Norman architecture, including an impressive campanile that dates back to 1143. Gorgeous, well-maintained mosaics and frescoes abound; no wonder the space is booked solid for weddings.

8 p.m.
3) MODERN CLASSIC

If you’re hankering for a sophisticated take on classic Sicilian fare, head over to Bellotero (Via Castriota 3; 39-091-582-158), a 10-table restaurant in Palermo’s new town that draws a nightly crowd of discerning and lively locals. Settle into a delectable meal of spaghetti with stone bass, sea urchin and lemon zest (12 euros) or lamb with oven-roasted pistachios and a vegetable caponata (12 euros). Top it all off with a glass of regional Marsala (try the Donna Franca from the Florio vineyards; 5 euros).

11 p.m.
4) BAR CRAWL

For a city with such an audible heartbeat, Palermo is surprisingly lackluster when it comes to memorable night life. All of the young crowd seem to have received the same text message, as drones of them meet up regularly at the bars lining Via Ruggero Settimo, Via Principe Belmonte and Via Isidoro la Lumia. Wade through the revelry that spills out into the streets or make your way to the more grown-up Bar Malù (Via Enrico Albanese 21; 39-347-820-0870). This duplex lounge with outdoor seating attracts an upscale bunch that flirts to D.J.-spun tunes and sips special cocktails like the Robertino, a nightcap of gin, Angostura bitters and Aperol (5 euros).

Saturday

9:30 a.m.
5) MORNING MARKETING

Forget that espresso. Get a rush by diving into the city’s most frenzied market, the souk-like La Vucciria (between Corso Vittorio Emanuele and Piazza San Domenico). A dizzying maze of narrow streets is filled with food stalls and illuminated with thousands of tiny lights. Slink into Bread Forreria (Via Bonacorso, 29), an adorable old-fashioned bakery, for homemade fettine zuccherate, its signature bread with sesame, raisin or anis toasted to perfection (10 euros a kilogram).

11 a.m.
6) RICH IN BAROQUE

Immerse yourself in Palermo’s spectacular Baroque architecture and art in the historic Loggia district. A single pass (5 euros, at any of the sites) gets you into the area’s five architectural treasures, including the Oratorio del Rosario del San Domenico (Via dei Bambiani), a 16th-century chapel with a Van Dyck altarpiece, a Novelli frescoed ceiling and many adorable cherubs. Grab a walking map (in front of any of the sites) and hit the other four, making sure to ponder the faces of the 15 statues representing the Virtues and the Mysteries in the resplendent rococo Oratorio del Rosario di Santa Citta (Via Valverde 3). They belonged to the socialites of the day.

1:30 p.m.
7) SWEET STOP

In a city where gelato in a sliced brioche is a legitimate meal option, get the real deal at Pasticceria Alba (Piazza Don Bosco 7/c-d, off Via della Libertà; 39-091-309-016; www.baralba.it), a half-century-old institution with an endless takeout menu and ancient staff. Order a scoop of pistachio bronte (2 euros), take your ice-cream burger outside and watch residents of all ages swing by for their midday delight.

4 p.m.
8) DEAD MAN WALK

File under “It Has to Be Seen to Be Believed.” Take the No. 327 bus to the city’s western outskirts for the exceedingly popular but no less creepy Catacombe dei Cappuccini (Piazza Cappuccini, 1; 39-091-212-117). The chilly passageways of this underground tomb are filled with more than 8,000 corpses — fully dressed men, women and children with frozen facial expressions — that were preserved through all sorts of science from the 16th century until 1920. More surreal than scary, this is a momento mori on a tremendous scale.

6:30 p.m.
9) SUNSET DRINKS

Pull up a chair on the terrace bar at the Villa Igiea (Salita Balmonte 43; 39-091-631-2111; www.hotelvillaigieapalermo.com), a luxury hotel on the slopes of the charming Monte Pellegrino. This Art Nouveau grande dame is nestled among gardens and courtyards that offer indelible 180-degree views of the Bay of Palermo. Sip a glass of crisp and fruity Donnafugata white (10 euros) while sampling the wide range of tempting snacks at the Bar des Arcades.

8:30 p.m.
10) SEASIDE SUPPER

For a nice break from all the seafood in the city, try Bye Bye Blues (Via del Garofalo 23; 39-091-684-1415; www.byebyeblues.it), an award-winning restaurant in the beachy Mondello neighborhood. Incredibly fresh ingredients conspire to create delicious plates like an appetizer of country cheeses served with walnuts and marmalade (13 euros). Follow it up with a delicious serving of pasta alla Norma, an island classic of rigatoni, tomato, ricotta and fried eggplant (12 euros). Pair it with a yummy 2004 Cerasuolo di Vittoria (22 euros), one of the 350 wines on hand.

10:30 p.m.
11) A DIGESTIVE STROLL

For dessert, grab a pezzo duro — frozen candylike gelato cones (2.5 euros) — at the sleek Caflisch cafe (Viale di Regina Margherita di Savoia, 2/b; 39-091-684-0444). From there, head to the nearby waterfront and enjoy a leisurely stroll, or passeggiata, along the crystal-clear Tyrrhenian. Take in legions of cabanas on white sand before fleeing the honky-tonk mix of bars, arcades and souvenir stands at the other end.

Sunday

11 a.m.
12) JESUS ON THE MOUNT

There’s a saying in Palermo that goes something like: “He who visits Palermo without visiting Monreale arrives as a donkey and leaves an ass.” O.K., so it’s not going on a T-shirt anytime soon, but that cramped and bustling hill town a few miles west of the city center is well worth a bus ride (No. 389). Beat a path to the 12th-century Duomo (Piazza Gugliemo il Buono) for what might be the most jaw-dropping display of Greek and Byzantine mosaic work anywhere. There are 200 intricately carved columns in the adjoining cloisters, and the 65-foot-high mosaic of Jesus glows like the sun over the central apse. The golden age of Palermo, it seems, never really ended.

THE BASICS

From July through October, Eurofly (www.euroflyusa.com) flies direct to Palermo from J.F.K. in New York twice a week. A recent online search found very limited availability in August, with fares from $1,447. Other carriers offered connecting service through Milan or Rome, with fares for early August starting at $1,604 on Delta and Alitalia.

The 30-minute taxi to downtown Palermo runs about 40 euros, about $65 at $1.62 to the euro. But for 5.30 euros, buses run every half hour (www.prestiaecomande.it).

Palermo’s many majestic hotels include the Excelsior Palace (Via Marchese Ugo, 3; 39-091- 790-9001; www.excelsiorpalermo.it). Just renovated, the lovely 19th-century building has 122 elegant rooms, a new restaurant and a diligent concierge. Standard double rates begin at 216 euros, but look for specials online.

For a more contemporary spin, check out the cosmopolitan Plaza Opera Hotel (Via Nicolò Gallo 2; 39-091-381-9026; www.hotelplazaopera.com/it) or the boutique Hotel Ucciardhome (Via Enrico Albanese 34/36; 39-348-426; www.hotelucciardhome.com). Their modern doubles start at 230 and 170 euros respectively.

Prefer something older? Check into the Palazza Conte Federico (Via dei Biscottari 4; 39-091-651-1881; www.contefederico.com), a torch-lit, antiques-laden castle from the 1100s that is still owned, run and inhabited by aristocracy. In fact, the Count and Countess Federico will toast and assist you upon arrival. Rates range from 150 to 400 euros.

2008年7月27日 星期日

游悟真寺詩白居易

約1992年我在日本京都某居家之大屏風狂書此詩 驚訝異常

歸國買白氏全集 讀樂天之長詩 曰人生盡在山間區折中

1998-99年幾次請朋友幫忙打字 都無法成篇

2005年四月二十日張 瑞麟兄初稿 回hcl"有無法將??處補上"?


429_33 游悟真寺詩(一百三十韻)】白居易

元和九年秋,八月月上弦。我游悟真寺,寺在王順山。
去山四五里,先聞水潺湲。自茲舍車馬,始涉藍溪灣。
手拄青竹杖,足蹋白石灘。漸怪耳目曠,不聞人世喧。
山下望山上,初疑不可攀。誰知中有路,盤折通岩巔。
一息幡竿下,再休石龕邊。龕間長丈餘,門戶無扃關。
仰窺不見人,石發垂若鬟。惊出白蝙蝠,雙飛如雪翻。
回首寺門望,青崖夾朱軒。如擘山腹開,置寺于其間。
入門無平地,地窄虛空寬。房廊与台殿,高下隨峰巒。
岩崿無撮土,樹木多瘦堅。根株抱石長,屈曲虫蛇蟠。
松桂亂無行,四時郁芊芊。枝梢裊青翠,韻若風中弦。
日月光不透,綠陰相交延。幽鳥時一聲,聞之似寒蟬。
首憩賓位亭,就坐未及安。須臾開北戶,万里明豁然。
拂檐虹霏微,繞棟云回旋。赤日間白雨,陰晴同一川。
野綠簇草樹,眼界吞秦原。渭水細不見,漢陵小于拳。
卻顧來時路,縈紆映朱欄。歷歷上山人,一一遙可觀。
前對多寶塔,風鐸鳴四端。欒櫨与戶牖,恰恰金碧繁。
云昔迦葉佛,此地坐涅槃。至今鐵缽在,當底手跡穿。
西開玉像殿,白佛森比肩。斗藪塵埃衣,禮拜冰雪顏。
疊霜為袈裟,貫雹為華鬘。逼觀疑鬼功,其跡非雕鐫。
次登觀音堂,未到聞栴檀。上階脫雙履,斂足升淨筵。
六楹排玉鏡,四座敷金鈿。黑夜自光明,不待燈燭燃。
眾寶互低昂,碧珮珊瑚幡。風來似天樂,相触聲珊珊。
白珠垂露凝,赤珠滴血殷。點綴佛髻上,合為七寶冠。
雙瓶白琉璃,色若秋水寒。隔瓶見舍利,圓轉如金丹。
玉笛何代物,天人施祇園。吹如秋鶴聲,可以降靈仙。
是時秋方中,三五月正圓。寶堂豁三門,金魄當其前。
月与寶相射,晶光爭鮮妍。照人心骨冷,竟夕不欲眠。
曉尋南塔路,亂竹低嬋娟。林幽不逢人,寒蝶飛翾翾。
山果不識名,离离夾道蕃。足以療饑乏,摘嘗味甘酸。
道南藍谷神,紫傘白紙錢。若歲有水旱,詔使修蘋蘩。
以地清淨故,獻奠無葷膻。危石疊四五,磊嵬欹且刓
造物者何意,堆在岩東偏。冷滑無人跡,苔點如花箋。
我來登上頭,下臨不測淵。目眩手足掉,不敢低頭看。
風從石下生,薄人而上摶。衣服似羽翮,開張欲飛鶱。
岌岌三面峰,峰尖刀劍攢。往往白雲過,決開露青天。
西北日落時,夕暉紅團團。千里翠屏外,走下丹砂丸。
東南月上時,夜气青漫漫。百丈碧潭底,寫出黃金盤。
藍水色似藍,日夜長潺潺。周回繞山轉,下視如青環。
或舖為慢流,或激為奔湍。泓澄最深處,浮出蛟龍涎。
側身入其中,懸磴尤險艱。捫蘿蹋樛木,下逐飲澗猿。
雪迸起白鷺,錦跳惊紅鱣。歇定方盥漱,濯去支体煩。
淺深皆洞徹,可照腦与肝。但愛清見底,欲尋不知源。
東崖饒怪石,積甃蒼琅玕。溫潤發于外,其間韞璵璠。
卞和死已久,良玉多棄捐。或時泄光彩,夜与星月連。
中頂最高峰,拄天青玉竿。(鼠冋)(鼠令)上不得,豈我能攀援。
上有白蓮池,素葩覆清瀾。聞名不可到,處所非人寰。
又有一片石,大如方尺磚。插在半壁上,其下万仞懸。
云有過去師,坐得無生禪。號為定心石,長老世相傳。
卻上謁仙祠,蔓草生綿綿。昔聞王氏子,羽化升上玄。
其西晒藥台,猶對芝朮田。時复明月夜,上聞黃鶴言。
回尋畫龍堂,二叟鬢發斑。想見听法時,歡喜禮印壇。
复歸泉窟下,化作龍蜿蜒。階前石孔在,欲雨生白煙。
往有寫經僧,身靜心精專。感彼雲外鴿,群飛千翩翩。
來添硯中水,去吸岩底泉。一日三往复,時節長不愆。
經成號圣僧,弟子名楊難。誦此蓮花偈,數滿百億千。
身坏口不坏,舌根如紅蓮。顱骨今不見,石函尚存焉。
粉壁有吳畫,筆彩依舊鮮。素屏有褚書,墨色如新乾。
靈境与异跡,周覽無不殫。一游五晝夜,欲返仍盤桓。
我本山中人,誤為時网牽。牽率使讀書,推挽令效官。
既登文字科,又忝諫諍員。拙直不合時,無益同素餐。
以此自慚惕,戚戚常寡歡。無成心力盡,未老形骸殘。
今來脫簪組,始覺离憂患。及為山水游,彌得縱疏頑。
野麋斷羈絆,行走無拘攣。池魚放入海,一往何時還。
身著居士衣,手把南華篇。終來此山住,永謝區中緣。
我今四十餘,從此終身閒。若以七十期,猶得三十年。




有漏當補:

磊嵬欹且刓
岌岌三面峰
(鼠冋)(鼠令)上不得
鼠冋http://140.111.1.40/yitic/frc/frc18207.htm
鼠令http://140.111.1.40/yitic/frc/frc18209.htm


2008年 悟

早已過

"我今四十餘,從此終身閒。若以七十期,猶得三十年。"

胡適
不作無益事

一日當三日
人活五十年
我活百五十

"Sound of Music" in Salzburg, Austria


EuroVox | 28.07.2008 | 05:30

Drinking Tea With Jam and Bread at the "Sound of Music" Hotel

Do you remember the singing von Trapp family that inspired the Academy Award winning 1965 film ‘The Sound of Music’? Thousands of tourists from the United States, Japan and China certainly do.

The movie was filmed in Salzburg, Austria, which is also where the real von Trapp family lived. It's estimated nearly half of all tourists who visit the city do so because of the film - and more often than not, the tourists also take part in sing-a-long tours that visit the former von Trapp family home. The home is now being converted into a hotel - but not everyone is singing its praises - especially Salzburg locals.

Report: Alexander Musik / Eric Heath

2008年7月25日 星期五

Bayreuth, Germany

Classical Music | 25.07.2008

German Wagner Opera Festival Opens With Eyes on Future

Germany's world-famous Wagner opera festival is set to open its 2008 season on Friday. Some high-tech changes show that this will be the last festival before a major generational change.

This year's Wagner opera festival in Bayreuth, Germany, which opens on Friday, July 25, will mark the end of an era that began in 1951 with the appointment of festival chief Wolfgang Wagner.

A deal has been struck for a new generation of Wagners to take over the event, which always begins with a red-carpet welcome for VIPs at the Wagner theater in this provincial German town, a kind of shrine to the composer Richard Wagner (1813-1883).

His grandson Wolfgang, who initially ran the Richard Wagner Festival in tandem with his brother Wieland and became sole chief after Wieland died in 1966, has promised to retire at the end of August.

Wolfgang WagnerBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Wolfgang Wagner seems invigorated by the decision to retire

Wolfgang has delayed for years, insisting that he holds his post for life, though his health is failing and he has difficulty walking. Now, at last, he is to hand over the "family business" to two of his daughters by different marriages, Eva Wagner-Pasquier, 63, and Katharina Wagner, 30, who still have to be officially elected by the festival board.

"It's a unique case in Bayreuth's festival history that a director is elected and not determined by heredity," Peter Emmerich, the festival's spokesman, told DW-RADIO.

Aides at the theater say that Wagner appears infused with new vigour since the decision, as if a great burden has fallen from his shoulders. It is generally expected that the board will appoint the two half-sisters as joint directors from Sept. 1. Though the artistic control is with the Wagners, the board is mainly made up of public figures.

Waiting for change

Katharina Wagner and Eva Wagner-Pasquier in a picture comboBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Will Katharina and Eva get along?

Eva, who is based in France, had still not been sighted in Bayreuth as opening night approached, whereas the younger sister Katharina has been highly visible in the festival quarter of town as if she were already the boss.

Her great-grandfather, who is supposed to have admonished his followers at the first festival in 1876 to renew and renew ever again, would presumably approve of both this change of generation and the adoption of new technology undreamed of in his day.

On July 27, the festival will feature its first-ever live simulcast on a big screen. The Bayreuth Festival Square will be turned into a public viewing area, where opera fans who didn't manage to get tickets to the theatre can still enjoy Katharina's revision of her 2007 staging of The Mastersingers of Nuremberg.

The same premiere will also be available as a video live stream on the Internet all around the world. The festival's previously unsophisticated Web site has had a makeover this year, too, to make it more informative. The English version, however, was still under construction as of Friday morning.

More money on the way?

Like all classical music events in Germany, the festival charges its audiences only a fraction of the true running costs, even though there is a waiting list of years to obtain just a single ticket.

Festival spokesman Peter Emmerich said there were requests for nearly 500,000 tickets this year, more than eight times the supply. VIPs and those who have waited longest have priority access to the tickets. The festival theater seats just under 2,000 people and there will be just 30 performances this season.

Angela Merkel greets by-standers outside the Wagner festival theaterBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: While most people wait years to get tickets, Merkel doesn't have to worry about hers

The Wagner clan bears no commercial risk in the venture, since lashings of taxpayer money make up the losses. Germany's government-funded arts community considers Bayreuth poor by comparison with some other prestige events, with an annual budget of a mere 17 million euros ($27 million).

Germany's federal government and the state of Bavaria look set to inject even bigger subsidies into the festival after reportedly constricting their funding for several years to force Wolfgang to go. Wagner-loving German Chancellor Angela Merkel and her husband, Joachim Sauer, are regular first-night attendees.

The festival is gingerly experimenting with commercial funding, offering rich corporate donors VIP-style treatment at the performances in exchange for generous giving. The corporate opera lovers can aspire to "silver lounge" or even more luxurious "gold lounge" status. The festival also hopes for income from festival merchandise, such as Wagner diaries and other festival souvenirs.

Perfect production

The first night on July 25 is to feature Parsifal in a brand-new version by Norwegian director Stefan Herheim. Leaked accounts describe the staging as a tour through several eras of German history.

Mihoko Fujimura as Kundry wearing a dark dress with black wings and holding a small flaskBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Mihoko Fujimura as Kundry

"Internally, people are saying that there's never been a more beautiful staging than this one," Mihoko Fujimura, who sings the role of Kundry in Parsifal, told DW-RADIO. "I've never experienced such a round, almost perfect production from every point of view."

Italian conductor Daniele Gatti will head the festival orchestra and Christopher Ventris will sing the title role. Katharina Wagner is believed to have made a string of changes to this year's reprise, on July 27, of her premiere production of The Mastersingers last year. Sebastian Weigle is to conduct.

The program, which continues to Aug. 28, will be rounded off by two now familiar Bayreuth stagings: Christoph Marthaler's Tristan and Isolde with Peter Schneider conducting, and Tankred Dorst's Ring of the Nibelung with Christian Thielemann at the helm.

DW staff (win)

2008年7月24日 星期四

Why the Expats Left Paris

Why the Expats Left Paris


巴黎﹕讓我們再次相愛﹖

| | |
2008年07月25日10:10
一 張1954年的老照片上﹐剛剛成立的《巴黎評論》(Paris Review)雜誌的編輯和記者聚在巴黎時尚寶地第6區的托儂咖啡館(Café Tournon)門前﹐他們前後高低錯落著排成幾排﹐第一排的椅子上坐著幾位衣著休閒的女士﹔雜誌創始人之一兼編輯──美國作家喬治•普利姆頓 (George Plimpton)則站在照片最高處﹐臉上帶著自得的微笑﹐卻又透著些許迷惘﹐手中拿著香煙和一杯貌似酒的東西。這張照片似乎也正是二戰後美國人迷醉的巴 黎旅居生活的寫照﹕青春、自由、從咖啡館迸發出的智慧激情、以及左岸地區(Left Bank)潮水般湧現的文學評論。當時﹐讓-保羅•薩特(Jean-Paul Sartre)和西蒙•波伏娃(Simone de Beauvoir)也曾坐在附近的花神咖啡館(Café de Flore)里﹐進行著他們著名的哲學辯論﹔理查德•賴特(Richard Wright)幾年以前就來到這裡﹐同時到來的還有索爾•貝婁(Saul Bellow)和年輕無名的詹姆斯•鮑德溫(James Baldwin)。貧困潦倒的鮑德溫當年就住在附近一個廉價而又略顯簡陋的維爾納伊旅店(Hotel Verneuil)。
In a picture taken in 1954 in front of the Café Tournon in Paris's chic sixth arrondissement, the writers and editors of the recently founded Paris Review are arranged in a human pyramid, with a row of casually dressed women sitting in chairs at the bottom and George Plimpton, the editor and co-founder, standing at the top with a slightly bemused, self-satisfied smile and a cigarette and what looks to be a glass of wine in his hand. The photograph feels emblematic of what Parisian expatriate life must have been like in those heady postwar years: young, liberating and full of an intellectual vigor that was embodied in café life and the host of literary reviews that were springing up all across the Left Bank. Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir were holding their already famous philosophical debates at a table at the nearby Café de Flore. Richard Wright had arrived a few years earlier, as had Saul Bellow and a young, and relatively unknown and impoverished James Baldwin, who was living at the Hotel Verneuil, a cheap, slightly run-down hotel nearby.


Getty Images
托儂咖啡館的露天座位﹐照片攝於1949年
在 過去六個月中﹐我一直住在距離托儂咖啡館、花神咖啡館和雙偶咖啡館(Les Deux Magots)只有五分鐘路程的地方。後兩者比前者更有名。尤其雙偶咖啡館﹐更是巴黎人和美國旅法作家曾經的精神生活中心。我最近有一次到托儂咖啡館吃午 餐﹐胳膊底下夾著詹姆斯•坎貝爾(James Campbell)一本著作﹐這本著作有一個很恰當的名字──《放逐巴黎》(Exiled in Paris)。我好奇地尋找照片誕生的那個時代留下的蛛絲馬跡。在那個五十多年前的年代﹐人們可以在咖啡館洗手間附近的小角落買到毒品﹐也有機會遇到在二 戰後以巴黎為家的眾多非洲裔美國作家、藝術家中的一位。如今的我卻發現自己顯然是這裡唯一的美國人。For the past six months, I've been living roughly five minutes away from the Café Tournon, and the even more famous Café de Flore and Les Deux Magots -- the former epicenters of Parisian and American expatriate intellectual life. I went to the Tournon for lunch recently, with James Campbell's eloquent and aptly titled book 'Exiled in Paris' tucked under my arm, curious to see if there was anything left of the café as it must have looked more than 50 years earlier when that picture was taken: when it was still possible to buy drugs in the little nook near the restrooms or have a chance encounter with one of the dozens of African-American writers and artists that had made Paris home following the end of World War II. It seems to almost go without saying now that I was the only American around.

在過去五十五年中﹐這裡的一切發生了 巨大的變化。包括托儂在內的聖傑曼大街(St. Germain)的咖啡館都已經舊貌換新顏﹕門面變得規整得體﹐精巧而又隨意的硬木裝飾、屋裡的圓桌和皮椅讓一切都變得不一樣。左岸這片曾經充滿波希米亞 氣息的地段一度是文人墨客的家園﹐即使是最窮的作家也不例外。如今﹐它已經變成了繁榮的巴黎旅遊業的游覽中心。由於美元兌歐元下跌得實在太厲害﹐曾經被美 國人、尤其是作家和藝術家當作臨時居所的地方幾乎不復存在。最近﹐我在聖傑曼大街咖啡館的露天座位上聽到這樣的談話﹐一位美國婦女對她的兩個朋友感慨﹕ “一杯純淨水就要八美元﹐八美元啊。”不過她的語氣聽上去更多的是困惑而不是憤怒。Things have changed drastically in the last 55 years; the Café Tournon, along with the rest of St. Germain, has cleaned up its act, with a proper, well-appointed façade, an elegant but casual hardwood décor and a roundtable of leather chairs in the back. The former bohemian quarters of the Left Bank that were once home to even the poorest of writers have become the center of Paris's starry-eyed tourist trade, and the dollar has plummeted so far against the euro that what once seemed to be a semipermanent settlement of Americans, particularly writers and artists, has all but vanished. Recently while sitting outside of a café just off the Boulevard St. Germain I overheard an American woman remark to her two friends, 'Eight dollars for a bottle of still water. Eight dollars,' her voice not so much angry as baffled.

現在當人們迴憶起上一代美國作家以及他們在巴黎的旅居 生活時﹐很難不加上浪漫主義色彩。想想吧﹕在一個陽光燦爛的日子﹐你坐在典雅的花神咖啡館﹐不遠處就是薩特和波伏娃﹔又或者﹐你坐在隔壁的雙偶咖啡館﹐臨 桌的鮑德溫和賴特正在進行激烈的爭論﹐原因是鮑德溫寫了一篇文章抨擊賴特的《土生子》(Native Son)。但是這些場景和對話似乎只屬於逝去的那個年代﹐那時流通貨幣仍然是法郎而不是歐元﹐人們也不會在聖傑曼大街的另一端找到一家American Apparel店。It's hard if not inevitable now to think of that previous generation of writers and not romanticize them and their lives here a bit: to think of yourself sitting under a bright light at a table in the back of the elegant Café de Flore, in shouting distance of Sartre or Simone de Beauvoir, or to have been on the terrace at the neighboring Les Deux Magots when James Baldwin and Richard Wright reportedly had a heated argument about an essay Baldwin had written excoriating Wright's 'Native Son.' Such events and conversations seem to belong exclusively to another era, one that was measured in francs instead of euros, when there wasn't an American Apparel store to be found just on the other side of the Boulevard St. Germain.

隨著那個年代逝去的不只是咖啡館里的文學生活﹐更有那種觸手可及、充滿活力的美國文化生活。我的一位朋友在一家法國大 型出版社工作。他告訴我﹐法國作家、編輯和記者仍會留連在那些如今已很有名的咖啡館和啤酒屋裡﹐繼續討論有關書籍或哲學的問題。他們討論這些這些問題時的 激情和嚴謹﹐可能並不遜於當年的薩特。似乎是為了進一步證明這一點﹐法國著名咖啡館──花神、雙偶和利普(Brasserie Lipp)都設立了文學獎。獎品除了金錢之外﹐還包括免費香檳和供獲獎者任意使用的餐券等等。換句話說﹐在法國﹐總的來說書籍和文學仍然是談話和辯論的主 題﹐只不過“碰巧”沒有美國人參與這種談話罷了。What's really missing these days isn't just café literary life, but a palpable and vibrant American cultural life. As a friend who works for one of France's largest publishers pointed out to me, French writers, editors, publishers and journalists are still there at the major cafés and brasseries that have now become famous, and they're still talking about books and philosophy, perhaps with even the same degree of heady, intellectual rigor that Sartre would have done. And as if to prove the point even further, the major cafés of St. Germain -- Café de Flore, Les Deux Magots and Brasserie Lipp -- all have literary prizes, which come with money and their own individual perks ranging from complimentary Champagne to a large tab that can be used at the writer's discretion. In other words, books and literature in general are all still discussed and debated; there just happen to be no Americans around when they are.

美國人缺席巴黎的文化生活﹐但是在巴 黎的美國人數量卻沒有明顯減少。最近到訪巴黎的美國人幾乎和當年一樣多﹐他們仍成群結隊地來到巴黎﹐只在“對伊戰爭”開始後和美國國會“修改菜單事件” (將法國薯條改為自由薯條﹐以抗議法國對伊政策)之後有過短暫的減少。(美國遊客的減少引起了關注﹐法國旅遊業立即開展了針對美國遊客的廣告宣傳﹐主題是 ﹕‘讓我們再次相愛吧。’)每逢週末﹐仍然可以看到美國人出現在那些著名的咖啡館外。對於普通法國人來說﹐美國旅遊者涌入法國的腳步從未停止過。當我在飯 桌上問一群朋友“是否注意到巴黎的美國人少了”時﹐他們的回答概括起來就是﹕“你瘋了吧﹖這裡有那麼多美國人﹗”從美國遊客的數量上和美國遊客留給他們的 印象上看﹐他們也許是對的。但是不得不承認的是﹐美國人和巴黎之間持續多年的“某種特定類型的愛情”事實上已經結束﹐而且是永遠地結束了。這種“愛情”是 無論多麼高明的廣告宣傳都無法挽回的。The absence of Americans is not a matter of sheer numbers. There are still almost as many Americans passing through Paris these days as in previous years. With the exception of a brief dip following the start of the war in Iraq and the branding of 'freedom fries' in the nation's Capitol building, Americans have continued to arrive in droves. (The decline in fact was so notable that the French tourist industry launched a campaign targeted towards American tourists titled, 'Let's Fall in Love Again.') You can still hear and see them standing outside of the famous cafés on the weekend, and for the average Parisian, the American tourist trade marches on unchecked. When I asked a group of friends over dinner whether they noticed that there were fewer Americans in Paris, the collective response from the table could be summed up as: Are you crazy? There are so many Americans here. And while they may have been right about the numbers, or the obvious presence which all tourists bring with them, it's hard not to believe that a certain type of long-standing love affair between Americans and the city hasn't in fact come to an end, that there's been a permanent departure that no advertisement campaign, however charming, can reverse.

英文書店“鄉村之聲”(Village Voice)坐落在聖日爾曼大街的德佩街區(Germain des Prés)。店主奧黛爾•海利爾(Odile Hellier)是一位嬌小的法國女士﹐帶著眼鏡﹐時常給人慷慨而熱情的感覺。海利爾充滿感情地談起屬於她的“美好過往”──上世紀80年代初。那時﹐大 量流連於巴黎的美國作家群體創建了文學刊物和文學評論刊物﹐這些刊物的類型是50年代以來不曾在巴黎出現過的。海利爾女士的書店裡幾乎全是文學類書籍﹐她 四白落地、狹窄而整潔的辦公室則位於書店最里側。在這間辦公室里﹐海利爾仍然保留著當年的一些刊物和筆記本﹐筆記本上記載著那一代美國作家的名字。談及那 個年月﹐海利爾的懷舊之情溢於言表﹐她熱切而執著的情感流露已很難在很多人身上看到。Odile Hellier, the slightly petite, appropriately bespectacled, and at times effusively generous French owner of the English-language Village Voice bookstore in St. Germain des Prés remembers fondly her own version of the good old days in the early 1980s, when a strong American expatriate community created literary journals and reviews in Paris, the types of which hadn't really existed since the 1950s. In her cramped, white-walled and yet neatly ordered office at the back of the bookstore, whose selection can best be described as almost excessively literary in scope, she still keeps a bundle of notebooks with the names of writers and some of the journals they created in those days. The nostalgia in her voice, which is filled with a rarely heard type of passionate earnestness, almost goes without saying.

回憶當年成群結隊來到巴黎的美國人和美國作家時﹐海 利爾感慨地重複著一個詞﹕“太多了”﹐“當年的法國似乎仍然是一個生活很輕鬆的地方﹐我們的書店也正是因為這個原因開辦的。”但是後來﹐這家書店與最初維 持書店的美國顧客群體一起陷入了衰落﹐銷售額大幅度下滑的局面一直持續到今天。'So many,' she says once, and then again two more times for emphasis, referring to both the Americans and the writers who once flocked here. 'France still looked like a country where it was easy to live. The Village Voice took off because of that.' The bookstore, like the Americans that initially helped sustain it, has been on the decline ever since, with a notable dip in sales that has continued unabated.


“對我來說﹐美國作家群體已經爆炸了。”海利爾女士說的爆炸是土崩瓦解的意思。
'For me, the community has exploded,' and by exploded she means disintegrated.

Obviously a large part of that disintegration can be traced back to the dollar's rapid decline against the euro. If Baldwin and Wright were to sit down today to two cups of coffee on the terrace of Les Deux Magots to argue about an essay, their bill, without tip, would be almost $15. The decline in American life in Paris, however, can't be all about the dollar and its rise and fall. When Baldwin arrived in Paris in 1947, he arguably had less here in terms of financial and material support than he would have had he stayed in New York. He came regardless, following on the heels of Richard Wright. Both men, along with dozens of other African-American writers and artists, were fleeing America's divisive and often violent racism, and France, or Paris in particular, was in the midst of its long-running love affair with African-American culture, and jazz in particular, and seemed openly freer and more inviting than any place in America could ever be. A decade later, Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso and William S. Burroughs would arrive in Paris seeking a similar relief, or freedom, from 1950s American society and culture.

SIPA
現在的托儂咖啡館
很 明顯﹐美國作家群體的瓦解可以追溯到美元對歐元的快速貶值上來。如果鮑德溫和賴特在今天的雙偶咖啡館談論創作﹐兩杯咖啡就要花掉他們將近15美元﹐還不包 括小費。其實旅居巴黎的美國人的減少絕不只是因為美元匯率的波動。當鮑德溫在1947年抵達巴黎的時候﹐他在巴黎獲得的金錢和物質資助比他在紐約的少。儘 管如此﹐他還是追隨著賴特的腳步而來。除了鮑德溫和賴特之外﹐還有數十位非洲裔的美國作家和藝術家﹐為了逃避美國分裂性、常常帶有暴力色彩的種族歧視而來 到這裡。法國(尤其是巴黎)長期以來對非洲裔美國人的文化十分推崇﹐尤其欣賞爵士樂。巴黎看上去也比美國的任何地方都更加自由、開放﹐也更吸引非洲裔美國 人。十年之後﹐為了追求同一種解脫或自由﹐為了逃避50年代的美國社會和文化﹐艾倫•金斯堡(Allen Ginsberg,)、格雷戈里•柯索(Gregory Corso)和威廉•巴洛斯(William S. Burroughs)也將來到巴黎。


Since then America has grown up, both culturally and politically, expanding its civil-rights legislation to closer reflect its founding principles of equality, while at the same time shedding some of the cultural conservatism that in the late 1950s led to the prosecution of the poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti for the publication of Ginsberg's drug- and sex-laden 'Howl and Other Poems.' As it's done so, inevitably the egalitarian appeal of Paris has declined with it. It's not just the Americans that the French miss, as much for economic as sentimental reasons to be sure, but the idea that France, and Paris in particular, was somehow markedly distinct and different from the United States and the rest of the world. If there's a nostalgia for the American presence that was once here, it's a nostalgia directly tied to the idea that Paris was once more open, more politically and culturally liberal and therefore easier to live and create in than most other cities. As Odile pointed out to me, following the birth of the euro and the subsequent rise in the cost of living, 'France became more like the others,' the others being the rest of the Western world, and America in particular, where commerce and not culture is the dominant social factor.
不 過美國從50年代起開始變得成熟了──無論在文化上還是在政治上。公民權立法不斷完善﹐更好地體現出“平等”這一美國立法的基本原則﹔文化上的保守主義傾 向也開始消退。50年代美國在文化上曾經相當保守﹐詩人勞倫斯•佛靈蓋蒂(Lawrence Ferlinghetti)由於出版了金斯堡的現代詩集《嚎叫》(Howl and Other Poems)而遭到起訴﹐原因是這本詩集充滿了有關毒品和性的內容。一旦美國文化變得成熟起來﹐巴黎平等主義的吸引力也就削弱了。法國人不僅懷念美國人﹐ 法國人也同樣懷念曾經屬於法國的榮譽﹕法國(尤其巴黎)曾經被認為是顯著區別於美國及其他國家的獨特去處﹐法國人的這種懷念無疑是由於經濟原因和情感原 因。所以巴黎對於美國旅居者的懷舊﹐也是直接源於巴黎對於過去榮譽的懷舊﹕巴黎曾經被認為比其它城市更開放、更富於政治自由和文化自由﹐生活更輕鬆﹐也更 適合創作。正如海利爾女士所說﹐隨著歐元的誕生和生活成本的提高﹐“巴黎和其它地方變得越來越像。”所謂“其它地方”是指其它西方國家﹐尤其是美國。在這 些地方﹐主導社會的力量是經濟而不是文化。



A recent walk along Boulevard St. Germain with a French book editor and friend quickly became an exercise in nostalgia as he tried to recall the names of some of the smaller family-owned stores that had dominated the street before the explosion of French and foreign chain stores took over; 'None of this was here,' being the phrase he used most often to describe what's happened since. Perhaps even more emblematic is the decidedly pro-American business model of the current president, Nicolas Sarkozy (aka 'Sarko L'Americain' as he's sometimes mocked in the French media), whose attempts to adjust the retirement age of civil servants and squeeze more efficiency out of the government have been met with massive nationwide strikes that seem aimed more at holding on to the remnants of a vanishing culture than challenging the logic of the policy.我最近和法國的一位圖書編輯朋友沿著聖日爾曼大街散步。我們的散步很快變成一次“懷舊之旅”。 他試圖回憶起曾經遍佈日爾曼大街的一些家庭小店的名字﹐如今這些小店已經被法國品牌或世界品牌連鎖店取代。談到連鎖店的爆炸式增長﹐他不斷重複一句話﹕ “過去可沒有這些。” 更具象徵意義的是法國現任總統薩科齊(Nicolas Sarkozy)明確主張的美國模式(他也被法國媒體戲稱為“薩科美國齊”,Sarko L'Americain)。這位總統試圖調整公務員的退休年齡並提高政府效率﹐他的改革計劃引起大規模的全國性罷工﹐不過這場罷工看上去更像是為了維護正 在消逝的文化﹐而不是質疑政府的政策原則。

Today it's impossible for me to imagine the sense of refuge and sanctuary that other Americans once found here. Paris has its own complicated racial issues to settle; as the violent riots in the suburbs of Seine-Saint-Denis recently demonstrated, there is little fraternité or égalité when it comes to France's large and growing African and North African immigrant communities. As a writer of African origin, I'm aware that it's precisely my American identity that protects me not only from the casual discrimination that other Africans experience here, but from the harassment of the police, who are prone to stopping Paris's African immigrants, particularly those living in the northern sections of the city. The food market near my former apartment in the 18th arrondissement, which in almost every detail, from the languages spoken to the fabrics of the women's dresses and the haggling at the vegetable stalls, was a perfect replica of some of the markets I've known in Africa, could sometimes feel like a market under siege with a constant and heavily armed large police presence marking the entrance off the Boulevard Barbès. The policeman's common cry for papiers, papiers -- documents proving legal residence -- is one that I know I can all but ignore thanks to my American accent first, and my passport second.如今﹐我很難想象美國前輩如何在這裡找到“避難所”的感覺。巴黎現在也有自己的複雜種族問題需 要解決。從塞納聖德尼地區(Seine-Saint-Denis)最近發生的暴力衝突就可以看出﹐對不斷壯大的北非及非洲移民群體來說﹐這裡既沒有博愛也 沒有平等。作為一名擁有非洲血統的美國人﹐我意識到我的美國身份保護了我。我不僅沒有遇到其他非洲人在這裡遇到的生活上的歧視﹐法國警察也沒有找過我的麻 煩。(法國警察經常盤查非洲移民﹐尤其是居住在巴黎北部的非洲移民)。我曾經住在巴黎第18區﹐住處附近的一個食品市場幾乎在每一個細節上都與我在非洲見 過的一些市場完全相同﹐無論是市場里人們的語言﹐婦女身上的衣料﹐還是蔬菜攤上的砍價方式。大批全副武裝的警察經常包圍這個市場﹐並在芭貝絲林蔭大道 (Boulevard Barbès)的入口劃出警戒線。盤查移民的警察總是叫著“文件﹗文件﹗”﹐所謂“文件”就是合法居留的憑證。不過我倒不用為這個“文件”而操心──首先 感謝我的美國口音﹐還要感謝我的美國護照﹗

James Baldwin noted shortly after he first arrived in France, 'I didn't go to Paris. I left New York.' Inherent in that statement is the idea that it wasn't the destination but the departure that mattered most. I can't help but think that to some degree that sentiment still holds true, although for drastically different reasons than before. Paris has lost some of what once made it so special and unique, enough so that it's hard to imagine another outburst of American cultural creativity taking place in Paris again anytime soon. Why Paris when there's the rest of the world, much of which is cheaper and more unknown? It's a question I hear constantly, less so from Americans than Parisians who seem baffled by my decision to be here.鮑德溫第一次抵達巴黎不久曾說過這樣的話﹕“我不是來到巴黎﹐而是離開紐約。”這句話暗示這樣 的意思﹕目的地並不重要﹐重要的是離開美國。我不禁想到﹐也許直到今天﹐這種情緒在某種程度上仍然沒有改變﹐不過離開美國的原因已經與過去截然不同。巴黎 已經失去了她的最特別之處﹐很難想象美國文化在不久的將來能在巴黎再來一次創造性爆發。如果巴黎與其它地方沒什麼不同﹐而且在其它地方還有一些更便宜、更 不為人所知的去處﹐為什麼非要去巴黎呢﹖這個問題是我經常被問及的問題。提問的人大多是巴黎人而非美國人﹐他們看上去對我來巴黎的決定感到困惑。

At the same time, perhaps that is the real, private joy and freedom of being in Paris these days -- the freedom not from politics or culture, but from an expatriate community in which to define yourself as part of or against. Shortly before I left America for Paris I had spoken with a friend about the possibility of moving to Buenos Aires. 'Buenos Aires could become the Paris for our generation,' she noted, and I could see why she said that. I had heard rumors of other people that we knew moving there, or if not there then to other cities around the world that were supposed to be indicative of a certain cultural vibrancy and easy, carefree life.我 對這個問題的答案如今可能要算是自己獨享的樂趣和自由的感覺了﹐但這些樂趣和自由並非來自這裡的政治或文化﹐而是來自旅居者群體。在這個群體里﹐人們可以 找到歸屬感和依靠。在離開美國前往巴黎之前﹐我與一位朋友談到移居布宜諾斯艾利斯的可能性。“布宜諾斯艾利斯可能是我們這一代人的巴黎。”我知道她這句話 的由來﹐因為我聽說一些熟人已經移居到那裡。如果他們不是移居布宜諾斯艾利斯﹐就是移居到世界其它城市﹐追尋某種特定的文化活力﹐以及更輕鬆、更恣意的生 活。

I can't say that there's much of either to be found in Paris these days, which is why I suppose there's a search for its newest incarnation, whether it's in Buenos Aires or Berlin or another destination that is supposedly rumored to be the next great spot, the place where we all really should be. The pressure of being fashionable has lifted from the city, and if possible by extension to the writers who live in it, leaving us free to wander and sit in complete anonymity with only our own thoughts for comfort in a way that would have been impossible 20 or 40 years earlier.但是人們追尋的這些東西﹐我在巴黎並沒有找到太多。因此我相信﹐人們一定在尋找新的歸依地﹐那裡才是我們都應該去的地方﹐也許是布宜 諾斯艾利斯﹐也許是被稱為“下一個偉大去處”的其它地方。巴黎已經不再強迫自己站在時尚前沿﹐這種氣氛也影響到居住在巴黎的作家﹐因此我們可以完全自由地 在這個巴黎閑逛﹐或者找一個角落﹐隱姓埋名地坐下來﹐讓自己的思緒不受打擾﹐這種愜意在20年或40年之前是不可能找到的。

Unlike many of the writers and Americans who came here before, my reasons for being here are purely selfish and self-absorbed, with nothing and no one to run from. I used to say that I came to Paris because it was so quiet, in large part because at the time I could hardly speak the language. While today that may no longer be as completely true, the city still strikes me as quiet. There's no romantic ideal to be lived out here anymore -- no cafés, readings or events that can't be missed. What remain today are largely ghosts that are easy if not even comforting to live amongst. They had their Paris -- garrulous and crowded with the politics and culture of America -- and now finally, with no one else around, I can have mine.與來到巴黎的 前輩們不同﹐我來這裡出於純粹的“自私”和“自我為中心”﹐而不是為了逃離什麼事情或什麼人。我過去總是說﹐是巴黎的安靜把我吸引到這裡。巴黎的“安靜” 在很大程度上是因為我當初不會說法語。如今這個理由已經不能完全成立﹐但是我還是感覺“巴黎”很安靜。巴黎已經不再居住著浪漫的偶像﹐咖啡館也不再有不可 錯過的朗讀會或其他活動。只有文化巨子們的亡靈徘徊在這個城市﹐即使你不能欣然地與他們相處﹐但是至少你可以輕鬆地生活在他們週圍。他們有他們的巴黎── 那個充滿喧囂、與美國文化和美國政治緊密相連的巴黎。當他們的亡靈漸漸遠去的時候﹐我也就擁有了屬於我自己的巴黎。

DINAW MENGESTU

2008年7月21日 星期一

East Boothbay, Me., USA

East Boothbay Journal

A Shipyard Fire Shakes a Tradition-Rich Town to Its Core

Bridget Brown for The New York Times

A fire on July 11 in East Boothbay, Me., destroyed Washburn & Doughty's 50,000-suqare-foot shipbuilding facility, forcing dozens of layoffs. More Photos >


Published: July 22, 2008

EAST BOOTHBAY, Me. — This village on the eastern side of a rocky peninsula is known for its boats: majestic yachts, workhorse tugboats and sloops made by craftspeople with an unflagging work ethic and a pride passed down by generations of boat builders.

So when East Boothbay’s biggest shipyard, Washburn & Doughty Associates, was destroyed by a fire July 11, it struck at the heart of this village about 30 miles up the coast from Portland.

“Boat building is Boothbay,” said John Anderson, manager of the Town of Boothbay, which includes East Boothbay. It has been the town’s dominant industry for about 150 years. “The impact of this on the local economy, the people, is huge.”

Ensuring that Washburn & Doughty reopens is also crucial to the state: it is one of the biggest boat builders in Maine, which has spent the past few years marketing its boats worldwide. According to Maine Built Boats, an industry group, boat builders in the state generated $355 million in sales in 2006 and employed 2,500 people.

“It’s the No. 1 manufacturing sector, and that’s something we don’t want to lose like we lost paper mills and like we lost lumber mills,” said Ted Smith, a spokesman for neighboring Hodgdon Yachts. “It’s not easily exported. You can’t send this to Iowa or Pennsylvania. This is part of Maine’s heritage.”

For the East Boothbay General Store, the five boat builders nearby are its livelihood, too. The store’s manager, Crystal Theall, said the shipyards’ workers kept the store open in the winter, dropping by for hot coffee, meatball subs and good conversation.

“Every day there’s a routine,” Ms. Theall said. “A coffee break at 9, lunch at 11:30 or 12, when the regulars pile in. You know all their names, what they order.”

“The company is a part of East Boothbay,” she added. “The shipyards are the end-all and be-all here. That’s what East Boothbay is known for.”

No one was hurt in the fire and propane tank explosions that destroyed Washburn & Doughty, which is now reduced to twisted, charred metal and black pieces of wood that look like charcoal.

The state fire marshal ruled the fire accidental, caused by sparks from a machine. Damage to the company was estimated at $30 million. The day before the fire, the company, the only steel tugboat manufacturer in Maine, received permission from the town to start a $5 million expansion.

The men and women who build boats in East Boothbay would rather be doing just that. Before the fire was extinguished, company executives were devising a plan to stay in business. It is using an adjacent park as a base of operations, where about 35 employees are working on a tugboat that was not damaged.

About 65 employees were laid off, the company said. Other boat builders in town, including Hodgdon Yachts, as well as local construction companies, have offered temporary work to some of them. The town has set up a fund to help the laid-off workers, and Maine’s senators, Olympia J. Snowe and Susan Collins, issued a statement saying, “The family-owned shipyard is integral to the Boothbay community’s economy and history, and we pledge to provide all available aid and assistance to help this company rebuild.”

The company hopes to rehire workers as demolition and repairs begin.

“The desire is to get everyone back to work as soon as possible,” said Washburn & Doughty’s operations manager, Lee Smith. “This is over $4 million annually in payroll. It directly affects all of the business here. The local community understands, and their willingness to help has been tremendous.”

With their combustible mix of wood, solvents, other chemicals and propane, East Boothbay’s shipyards have always worried local firefighters. In 1944 a major fire roared through Rice Brothers, a boat-building company on the site of what is now Washburn & Doughty, which moved here in 1985.

Capt. Dave Pratt of the Boothbay Fire Department said that in the July 11 fire “the minute the call went out, we knew what we were up against.”

“It’s on the water, you can only fight it from three sides,” Captain Pratt continued. “It was the biggest fire I’ve ever seen and probably will ever see.”

Ms. Theall, whose general store was closed because of the thick smoke, said the fire was something she and everyone else here never wanted to see again.

“For people in this area it’s just too close to home.” Ms. Theall said. “It’s right in our backyard. Everyone loves everyone else here. It’s just so sad.”

2008年7月19日 星期六

名間鄉

【大台灣旅遊網TTNews記者范綱武/南投縣報導】

名間鄉鳳梨生薑產業文化季暨歡樂巴士GO,在熱鬧表演節目中開幕!(攝影/范綱武)
搭配「2008南投火車好多節」的熱鬧開幕,名間鄉公所於7月19日在濁水車站同時舉辦了鳳梨生薑產業文化季的開幕活動,現場的活動除了有精美獎品的摸彩活動外,尚有農特產品的展售、鳳梨生薑製作教學DIY、高品質鳳梨評鑑競賽、鳳梨風味餐等。

   名間鄉農會農會總幹黃益利表示,搭配2008南投火車好多節活動的開幕,名間鄉農會特別舉辦了高品質的鳳梨評鑑競賽。鳳梨是名間鄉非常重要的農產品,種 植面積約達600公頃,此次搭配火車好多節的開幕來舉辦,希望能吸引人潮前來,舉辦評鑑的目的在於讓農友們能夠了解自己所種植鳳梨的優缺點,進而加以改 進,盼能越種越好。鳳梨在行政院農委會及縣政府用心輔導下,品質愈來愈好,希望全省各地的遊客都能到名間鄉來買鳳梨。

   此外,活動開 幕有來自埔里的舞聲舞蹈團及街頭藝人表演,現場尚有鳳梨薑汁的做法教學,只見一群婆婆媽媽圍繞在名間產銷班的指導員身旁,仔細聆聽鳳梨薑汁的做法並現場實 地操作,中午時分尚有美味可口的鳳梨風味餐,只見一道道以鳳梨作為食材的佳餚上桌,口味豐富可口,讓賓客們都吃的非常開心。

  歡樂巴士 Go活動行程於7月19日至8月24日止(六、日)。開幕日搭乘時段為下午1:30至下午5:00止,其他週六、日搭乘時段為上午08:30至下午5: 00止,購票與搭乘地點在「2008南投火車好多節」濁水站會場(六、日),接駁車上有專業導覽解說人員為民眾服務,歡迎大家踴躍參加共襄盛舉。(攝影/ 范綱武)

南投火車好多節:http://doodoo.travel-web.com.tw/
名間深度之旅:http://551.travel-web.com.tw/

投縣/火車好多節 鳳梨生薑製作教學DIY

(2008/07/20 00:34)

記者林凌霄/名間報導

間鄉濁水火車站19日除「南投火車好多節」熱鬧開幕外,尚有鳳梨生薑產業文化季的開幕活動。現場有農特產品的展售、鳳梨生薑製作教學DIY,高品質鳳梨評鑑競賽、鳳梨風味餐等。

鳳梨評鑑競賽是由名間鄉農會執行,農會理事長連榮桂及總幹黃益利共同表示,鳳梨是名間鄉非常重要的農產品,種植面積約達600公頃,此次搭配火車 好多節的開幕來舉辦,希望能吸引人潮前來,舉辦評鑑的目的在於讓農友們能夠瞭解自己所種植鳳梨的優缺點,進而加以改進,盼能越種越好。鳳梨在行政院農委會 及縣政府用心輔導下,品質愈來愈好,希望全省各地的遊客都能到名間鄉來買鳳梨。

而名間鄉果樹產銷班的陳惠容表示,縣府搭配南投火車好多節,還能幫助農友推廣農特產品的用心表示肯定。名間鄉有很多豐富的農特產品,希望大家多多 來捧場。此外,現場尚有鳳梨薑汁的做法教學,只見一群婆婆媽媽圍繞在名間產銷班的指導員身旁,仔細聆聽鳳梨薑汁的做法並現場實地操作。中午時分尚有美味可 口的鳳梨風味餐,只見一道道以鳳梨作為食材的佳餚上桌,口味豐富可口,讓賓客們都吃的非常開心。

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Paul McCartney Joins Billy Joel at Shea Stadium

a Stadium
Shea_patch_2008.jpg
Shea Stadium
Location 123-01 Roosevelt Avenue
Flushing, New York 11368


Wikipedia article "Shea Stadium".

1965年 The Beatles訪美首站

Paul McCartney Joins Billy Joel at Shea Stadium


Published: July 19, 2008

It takes a lot to upstage Billy Joel at Shea Stadium.

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Kevin Masur

Billy Joel, left, performing in what was advertised as the last concert at Shea Stadium, was joined by Paul McCartney.

But late on Friday night, nearly three hours into a career-spanning performance advertised as the last concert at Shea before it was to be demolished, Mr. Joel seemed happy to turn over the spotlight to Paul McCartney, who, he said, had just flown in from London.

The sold-out crowd of 55,000 people let out an ear-splitting roar as Mr. McCartney sang the Beatles’ “I Saw Her Standing There,” with Mr. Joel singing backup and, fitting his reputation as a self-deprecating rock star, looking on from his piano as if he were just another fan himself.

Before beginning “Let It Be,” Mr. McCartney alluded to the Beatles’ first concert at Shea in 1965, the year after the stadium opened.

“It’s so cool to be back here on the last night,” he said. “Been here a long time ago — we had a blast that night, and we’re having another one tonight.”

The concert was the second of two farewell shows by Mr. Joel, who told the crowd earlier in the night: “They’re tearing this house down. I want to thank you for letting me do the job and keep doing it — the best job in the world.”

Mr. McCartney wasn’t the only big guest. The country star Garth Brooks, dressed in a Mets T-shirt, sang Mr. Joel’s “Shameless,” which was a big hit for Mr. Brooks; Steven Tyler of Aerosmith performed “Walk This Way;” and Roger Daltrey of the Who — which played at Shea in 1982 — sang “My Generation” as Mr. Joel smashed a guitar on the center-field stage.

Before the show, fans praised Mr. Joel, Long Island’s favorite son, as an approachable superstar whose songs chronicle everyday New York lives and struggles. “Only New Yorkers have a true sense of what he talks about,” said Lauren Marchiano, 26. As an avowed follower of both Mr. Joel and the Mets, she said, the night was doubly poignant for her.

But the most popular topic of conversation seemed to be how much everyone had paid to get in. Ronnie Glowacki, an administrative assistant from Brooklyn, had been frozen out when tickets went on sale in February; she would say only that she paid “somewhere between zero and $500” to get in on Friday. A Yankees fan, she was there to catch what could be a last glimpse — not of Shea Stadium, but of Mr. Joel.

“I don’t know how much longer he’s going to be doing concerts, so I want to get every one I can get in,” she said. “For me it’s all Billy.”

2008年7月16日 星期三

ST. LOUIS — Anger and Dismay at the Sale of a City Treasure

St. Louis Journal

Anger and Dismay at the Sale of a City Treasure

Jeff Roberson/Associated Press

Anheuser-Busch traces its roots to before the Civil War. The company on Monday accepted a sweetened $52 billion takeover offer by the Belgian beer giant InBev.


Published: July 16, 2008

ST. LOUIS — With the shades inside a tavern on Pestalozzi Street drawn to block the early morning sun, Dave Liszewski, a third-shift worker at Anheuser-Busch, nursed a bottle of Bud Light and a hollowed sense of pride.

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Dilip Vishwanat for The New York Times

“It took everybody by surprise,” Dave Liszewski, a 30-year employee who operates a machine that puts labels on bottles, said of the takeover deal. “They promised us this wouldn’t happen.”

“We were betrayed,” said Mr. Liszewski, who was still not sure he could believe the news that the company had agreed to be sold. “The good Lord was sold out for 30 pieces of silver. We were sold out for $70 a share.”

August A. Busch IV, the scion who runs the family brewery that makes Budweiser and Michelob and dates to before the Civil War, had vowed that there would be no sale on his watch. But in the end, sentiment and tradition were no match for a $52 billion offer from the Belgian beer giant InBev.

All around this old Midwestern city famous for its brew, heads have been shaking in disbelief. Budweiser, the king of American beers, will belong to Europe.

“It took everybody by surprise,” said Mr. Liszewski, a member of the Teamsters union who followed his uncle into the brewery 30 years ago. “They promised us this wouldn’t happen.”

An American flag snaps high above the belching stacks of the brewery, a red-brick and wrought-iron fortress in the historic Soulard neighborhood, where the air is tinged with the smell of yeast.

The Anheuser-Busch dynasty is so ingrained in the identity of St. Louis that people here talk about the Busch family as if they are both royalty and relatives, making references to “Gussie” (August A. Busch Jr.) and “Augie” (August A. Busch III).

In a city that does not do much bragging, the mighty brewery has long been a reason to boast.

“St. Louis has a terrible inferiority complex,” said Susan Manlin Katman, sitting in the shade at an outdoor cafe in the trendy Central West End neighborhood. “We’re not North or South, East or West. So we tend to dwell on what we’re lacking, instead of what we have.”

Downtown St. Louis has witnessed a striking resurgence in recent years, with the opening of stylish pubs and restaurants and the refurbishing of residential lofts. With its French and German influences, St. Louis has a rich cultural history and an architectural flourish. It has exulted in the glories of Cardinal baseball heroes, from Stan Musial to Albert Pujols. The city also claims Forest Park, an urban nature preserve near downtown that is bigger than Central Park.

But for all that, its national acclaim is tied mostly to the brewery — it brings the tourists to town, along with the Gateway Arch. Almost anywhere in the world that residents of St. Louis travel, they are asked about the King of Beers and, of course, the Clydesdales, the mascots of the brewery.

InBev has pledged not to shut down any of Anheuser-Busch’s 12 breweries in the United States. But many here still feel here as if a treasure is endangered.

As Opal Henderson, a 78-year-old auto salvage yard owner, put it, “Why can’t those foreigners just stay at home and leave us what we have?”

Mayor Francis G. Slay has a different view. “One of my first goals,” he said in a statement, “will be to try to convince InBev, which loves to cut costs, to move to St. Louis, where pretty much everything is cheaper than in Belgium.”

That is not likely to happen. Among the 6,000 St. Louis-area workers employed at A-B, as it is known here, the worry is that the new owner will try to cut jobs or wages.

Mr. Liszewski, who operates a machine that puts labels on bottles of Bud Light, earns $27 an hour. He is a blue-collar man in work boots who has been able to pay off his house and buy land in Southern Illinois where he can hunt for deer. “It’s not just been a good life,” he said. “It’s been an excellent life.”

At the St. Louis Galleria, Alexis Littlejohn, a bank worker, said she believed that the new owners think they have a way to squeeze more profits out of the brewery. “If it didn’t make economic sense,” she said, “they wouldn’t be doing it.”

In the bars around the brewery district, there is a mixture of anger and fear, even among those who do not work for Anheuser-Busch.

Loyalty runs deep for the brewery and its workers. If you order a beer at Crabby’s saloon, it had better be an Anheuser-Busch product. They do not carry anything else.

The owner, Stephanie Hafertebe, certainly does not stock any Stella Artois, a beer made by InBev.

“Not so many years ago, union workers would walk out of a place if you served anything that wasn’t Anheuser-Busch,” Ms. Hafertebe said.

A couple of patrons were shooting pool. A cocker spaniel was crawling around the floor. On the jukebox, Frank Sinatra crooned, “I get no kick from Champagne.”

Tom Lucas, a 51-year-old auto mechanic with oil-stained fingers, sat on a barstool and drew hard on a cigarette.

St. Louis is a place where people can still smoke in taverns. But everything else seems to be changing. The idea of the brewery belonging to foreigners seemed unfathomable to many. People like Mr. Lucas may have to get used to it. But he does not have to like it.

“It stinks,” Mr. Lucas said. “Augie would be rolling in his grave if he knew about this.”

2008年7月13日 星期日

A New Fashion Catches On in Paris: Cheap Bicycle Rentals 2007-08

2007-2008

A New Fashion Catches On in Paris: Cheap Bicycle Rentals


Published: July 13, 2008

PARIS — They’re clunky, heavy and ugly, but they have become modish — and they are not this season’s platform shoes.

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Ed Alcock for The New York Times

A system for renting Vélib’ bicycles has become hugely popular in Paris, where about 20,600 of the bikes are in service.

Ed Alcock for The New York Times

Self-service rental stations are ubiquitous in Paris.

Ed Alcock for The New York Times

The rental stations are also easy to use, contributing to the success of the year-old program.

A year after the introduction of the sturdy gray bicycles known as Vélib’s, they are being used all over Paris. The bikes are cheap to rent because they are subsidized by advertising, and other major cities, including American ones, are exploring similar projects.

About 20,600 Vélib’ bicycles are in service here, with more than 1,450 self-service rental stations. The stations are only some 300 yards apart, and there are four times as many as there are subway stations, even in a city so well served by its metro system.

In the first year, the city says, there have been 27.5 million trips in this city of roughly 2.1 million people, many of them for daily commutes. On average, there are 120,000 trips a day. And on July 27, at the conclusion here of the Tour de France, 365 lucky Vélib’ riders will be chosen to ride along for a while and cross the finish line.

There are a Vélib’ Web site, Vélib’ fashions and a Vélib’ blog (http://blog.velib.paris.fr/blog); one recent posting discussed the best way to ride with a skirt. A kind of Vélib’ behavior has emerged, especially at the morning rush, with people swiftly checking for bikes in the best condition: tires inflated, chains still attached, baskets unstolen.

Natallya Ghyssaert, a 34-year-old doctor, has an annual subscription for 29 euros (about $46), which lets her use a bike whenever she wants for 30 minutes at a time without extra charges. She uses a Vélib’ two or three times a day, saying, “I love it; you can see Paris, you can exercise and stay out in the light of day.”

The Vélib’ — a contraction of vélo for bike and liberté — can also be rented for a day or for a week, with a 150 euro (about $239) deposit taken from the user’s credit card if the bike is not returned. Usage fees over 30 minutes can rise steeply: two hours costs 7 euros (about $11). But 96 percent of all rides are less than 30 minutes, because bikes can be returned to any station.

No one knows quite how many trips by car or taxi are thereby avoided, but the “eco-friendly” nature of the Vélib’ has been much promoted in a country where juice companies warn of the risks to “our fragile planet” in lavish brochures on thick paper.

Benjamin Tomada, 30, a cook parking his Vélib’ near the Music Hall restaurant where he works, said: “I have a car but I don’t use it. It’s always better to take a bike than the metro.”

Still, there have been significant problems with traffic congestion and safety, vandalism and theft. At least 3,000 of the bikes have been stolen — nearly 15 percent of the total, and twice original estimates. Some have been seen in Romania or found in shipping containers on their way to Morocco.

Wearing helmets is not compulsory in France, and three people have died on their rented Vélib’s, hit by buses or trucks.

The Vélib’ program in Paris was conceived by the Socialist mayor, Bertrand Delanoë, and the 10-year contract was won by JCDecaux, a major French public relations and advertising company with good political contacts, after defeating a rival bid from Clear Channel.

The deal is supposed to be good for Paris, but it promises to be extremely lucrative over time for JCDecaux.

Decaux got to erect 1,628 billboards to rent; it invested nearly $142 million to set up the rental bike system and the billboards, and must provide maintenance and replace stolen bikes; the city of Paris gets the proceeds from the usage of the bikes plus some royalties from Decaux.

So far, according to Rémy Pheulpin, the company’s executive vice president, it has put up 1,500 billboards in a year and expects to make about $94 million a year from them. The company stands to begin turning a considerable profit if not next year, then in the third year of its 10-year contract.

The city has received $31.5 million from subscribers and users of the bikes, plus an additional $5.5 million a year, fixed in the contract, from advertising royalties, according to Céline Lepault, the Vélib’ project manager for City Hall.

Mr. Pheulpin, whose company built similar but much smaller programs in 10 other cities, like Lyon and Rouen, said the company had learned that there were several keys to success: allowing subscriptions, so people get the sense that the bikes are free once they have paid their up-front fee; making sure the bike stations are ubiquitous and keeping the system “user-friendly.”

In fact, the system is easy to use, with instructions in various languages, and bikes can be taken and returned quickly — so long as there are bikes available in good repair. But as many American tourists have discovered, only credit cards with built-in chips, common in Europe but unusual in America, are accepted by the terminals.

A Decaux subsidiary repairs the bikes — some 1,500 a day. The bikes are heavy, to try to prevent theft of key parts like gears, chains and electronic sensors, which measure time of rental. While an average bike weighs 33 pounds and is used for 124 miles a year, Mr. Pheulpin said, the three-gear Vélib’, specially designed and built by a French company in Hungary, weighs nearly 50 pounds and is built to be used more than 6,000 miles a year. Each bike costs $3,460.

As for safety, both the city and Decaux argue that bicycle accidents in Paris have risen only 7 percent compared with a 24 percent increase in bicycle use since early 2007. “Bicycles become fashionable, and the more bikes there are in a city, the safer it is, and the more the city will give space to bicyclists,” Mr. Pheulpin said.

The city and Decaux, after criticism following the latest death on June 23, say they will start a new safety advertising campaign in September. Vélib’ users are supposed to follow road rules, stop at red lights and stay off the sidewalks, but many do not.

Drivers in already congested Paris, never particularly bike-friendly, are not particularly happy with the bikes that further clog the streets or with Mr. Delanoë’s effort to reduce car traffic by 40 percent by 2020. In 2001, Yves Contassot, then deputy mayor for the environment, said of motorists: “It is only by making them live in hell that we’ll get drivers to renounce their cars.” Motorists remember.

Wide bus lanes were set up on major through streets like the Boulevard Montparnasse — considered too wide, termed “XXL” in the press. While nothing like Amsterdam, Paris is also building more bike lanes, as well as reducing parking spaces by putting Vélib’ stations in their place.

“This is what the French call a ‘false good idea,’ ” said Ronald Koven, who drives a car here. “The traffic jams are far worse, and because of them, the pollution is, too.”

Ms. Ghyssaert, the doctor, says she feels safe on the bicycles, “except in some bustling neighborhoods where there are too many cars.” She is not always so careful, she admitted. “I use the bike to dodge in and out of traffic, and I know that the drivers are irritated to see so many Vélib’s.”

Helmets would be a good idea, she said, offering a very French solution: “The city should get further subsidies and give Vélib’ subscribers vouchers to get helmets from big stores.”

Maia de la Baume and Basil Katz contributed reporting.

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