2008年4月29日 星期二

Nothing fishy about Taiwan nuke plant

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16 Apr 2008

Nothing fishy about Taiwan nuke plant, snorkellers say

Tue Apr 29, 2008

fishy (DISHONEST) PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
adjective INFORMAL
seeming dishonest or false:
There's something fishy going on here.

By Ralph Jennings

KENTING, Taiwan (Reuters Life!) - As Taiwan heats up ahead of the summer, hundreds of beach bums are splashing down at a beach next to a nuclear power plant that spews cooling water straight into the ocean.

They try not to think about it.

"I haven't evaluated the safety here. That's something scholars and experts should research more," said fire department employee Hsieh Rong-chan, 36, as he suited up for diving, adding that the water at least looked clean.

State-run Taiwan Power Co's 340-hectare No. 3 Nuclear Power Station opened in 1985 beside a stretch of sand famous among visitors to Kenting, a cluster of beach communities that draw thousands of beach-goers. Taiwan's two other nuclear power plants do not border swimming beaches.

The brown domes of two nuclear plant towers loom in clear view of sunbathers on the white sands, while snorkelers paddle in a coral-rich inlet right next to the open, cement-sided cooling water outtake channel.

Swimmer Eugene Joubert, 47, originally from South Africa, said he saw a moray eel and armadas of normal-looking, two-eyed, single-tailed tropical fish through clear waters about 15 meters under the ocean surface, right next to the outtake channel.

"It's not a problem at all," he said, toweling off with his three dogs, who had also been in the water.

"I didn't know the nuclear water was running. It's one of the best sites in Taiwan."

The water was almost warm enough to break a sweat, he added.

"Taiwan people think that if you can't see the danger, then danger basically doesn't exist," said You Hui-chin, 37, as she dipped her toes in a tidal pool a few dozen meters from the cooling water outlet, and watched her twin 4-year-old sons barge further into the ocean.

Some swimmers at Nanwan believe that as long as they only swim next to the nuclear plant occasionally, rather than every day, they will survive.

Others are surprised to find the nuclear plant and refuse to touch the water.

"I'd be afraid," said Chen Ying-rong, a high school student on a three-day tour of Kenting. "It's not appropriate (to swim next to the plant). There could be pollution."

Taiwan Power expels nothing radioactive, only water used to cool the reactors that produce seven percent of Taiwan's electricity, said plant director Chen Pu-tsan.

Kenting locals report no illness or mutated fish.

The power company acknowledges coral blanching from the outtake water, which is 31 to 32 degrees Celsius, higher than normal ocean temperatures. They will spend a one-off $70,000 to protect the surrounding coral reefs.

"People are not afraid," Chen said.

"You can see, this beach is packed everywhere and in the background are our stacks."

(Editing by Gillian Murdoch)

2008年4月27日 星期日

Bicycle-Sharing Program, WASHINGTON

Bicycle-Sharing Program to Be First of Kind in U.S.

Ed Alcock for The New York Times

Bikes waiting for pickup at a self-service docking station in Paris, where the Vélib sharing program began last summer.

Published: April 27, 2008

WASHINGTON — Starting next month, people here will be able to rent a bicycle day and night with the swipe of a membership card.

A new public-private venture called SmartBike DC will make 120 bicycles available at 10 spots in central locations in the city. The automated program, which district officials say is the first of its kind in the nation, will operate in a similar fashion to car-sharing programs like Zipcar.

The district has teamed up with an advertiser, Clear Channel Outdoor, to put the bikes on the streets.

“There’s a lot of stress on our transit systems currently,” said Jim Sebastian, who manages bicycle and pedestrian programs for Washington’s Transportation Department. Offering another option, Mr. Sebastian said, “will help us reduce congestion and pollution,” as well as parking problems.

In the deal, Clear Channel will have exclusive advertising rights in the city’s bus shelters. The company has reached a similar deal with San Francisco. Chicago and Portland, Ore., are also considering proposals from advertisers.

For a $40 annual membership fee, SmartBike users can check out three-speed bicycles for three hours at a time. The program will not provide helmets but does encourage their use.

Similar programs have proved successful in Europe. The Vélib program in Paris and Bicing in Barcelona, Spain, both started around a year ago and already offer thousands of bicycles.

Mr. Sebastian, who started trying to bring bike-sharing to Washington even before its success in Paris and Barcelona, said he believed that the program could grow within a year and hoped that it would eventually offer 1,000 bicycles.

While automated bike-sharing programs are new to the United States, the idea of bike-sharing is hardly novel. Milan, Amsterdam and Portland have all had lower-tech free bike-sharing programs in the past, with Amsterdam’s dating to the 1960s.

But “studies showed that many bikes would get stolen in a day, or within a few weeks,” said Paul DeMaio, a Washington-area bike-sharing consultant. “In Amsterdam, they would often find them in the canals.”

Improved technology allows programs to better protect bicycles. In Washington, SmartBike subscribers who keep bicycles longer than the three-hour maximum will receive demerits and could eventually lose renting privileges. Bicycles gone for more than 48 hours will be deemed lost, with the last user charged a $200 replacement fee.

That technology comes with a price, which is one reason cities and advertisers started joining forces to offer bike-sharing. The European programs would cost cities about $4,500 per bike if sponsors did not step in, Mr. DeMaio said.

Cities realize “they literally have to spend no money on designing, marketing or maintaining” a bike-sharing program, said Martina Schmidt of Clear Channel Outdoor. Washington will keep the revenue generated by the program.

Bike-sharing has become a “public service subsidized by advertising,” said Bernard Parisot, the president and co-chief executive officer of JCDecaux North America, an outdoor advertiser that made a proposal to bring bike-sharing to Chicago.

But, Mr. Parisot added, if users had to pay all of the costs for bike-sharing, “they would probably just take a cab.”

The low cost could be one of the program’s major selling points.

At George Washington University in Foggy Bottom, one of the program’s 10 locations, students were unsure how often they would use SmartBike, but said its price made it worth a try.

“I’d probably use it more in the summer than winter,” said Dewey Archer, a senior. “But for $40? That’s cheaper than gas.”

2008年4月26日 星期六

Seeking Tranquillity,Kyoto, Japan 京都一年(八年)

再怎麼說 京都一年京都八年 都是別人的故事
譬如說 90年代初與吳國精先生到京都一遊(三天兩夜)
對於吳先生而言 是"文化衝擊"
所以他十來年之後 還會帶留學美國康乃爾大學的女兒去重遊
我在他們廣州中山市的工廠之高幹宿舍中 讀到
要了解這千年古都 也需要數代的傳承



   本書收錄了作者1970年遊學日本京都十月間所創作的散文作品。由於作者深諳日本語言、文化,長時居留,故能深入古都的多種層面,以細微的觀察,娓娓的 敘述,呈現了她個人對於京都的體會。於是京都近郊的亭臺樓閣、古剎名園;京都的節令行事、民情風俗,有如一幅白描長卷,一一展現眼前。




   臺灣彰化人。生於上海日本租界。幼時接受日本教育,11歲始返臺,學習臺語,並接受中文教育。臺灣大學中文研究所畢業後,即留母校執教,專攻中國古典文 學研究。曾任美國華盛頓大學、史丹佛大學、加州柏克萊大學、捷克查理斯大學客座教授。教學之餘,更從事文學創作及翻譯。學術著作、譯作細膩嚴謹,散文作品 則在記敘與抒情中蘊含無限感思,傳遞著生活裡充盈的美好。1993年自臺大退休,次年獲聘為臺大中文系名譽教授,目前旅居美國。曾獲中國時報文學獎(散文 類)、國家文藝獎散文獎及翻譯獎。著有《讀中文系的人》、《飲膳札記》、《擬古》、《讀我的書》等,並譯注日本古典文學名著《源氏物語》、《枕草子》、 《和泉氏部日記》、《伊勢物語》。


京都的四月,是櫻花滿城的季節,日本人迷戀櫻花,愛它方生方滅,愛它剎時燃燒又迅疾凋零。在京都待了十多年,把這裡視為第二故鄉的巧梅,倒全然沒有日本人 這種櫻花性格。我覺得她是如假包換的國產梅花,環境愈嚴酷,她愈堅強,生命力無比旺盛。巧梅的個性隨和,三教九流都可以交往,但自有堅持,不與世合流。

作者簡介  姚巧梅  安徽省阜陽縣人。台北世界新聞專科學校畢業,日本龍谷大學博士課程修了,專攻日本現代文學。新聞與文學,其實都和人關係密切。日本名作家夏目漱石說過 「文學即人生」。所以,除了本書,也從實際接觸的人與生活,體驗各種人生情境,並藉此探尋、反觀自己,以及生命的涵義。喜歡旅行、寫作、翻譯,和青年朋友 談天說地。擁有許多要好的怪朋友談天說地。擁有許多要好的怪朋友。譯作有『大師小品-日本短篇經典』、「太平天國」、「再見玉嶺」、「枯草之根」、「青玉 獅子香爐」、「姑獲鳥的夏天」、「魍魎之匣」等。

Frugal Traveler | Kyoto, Japan

Seeking Tranquillity, on Less Than $200 a Day

Basil Childers for The New York Times

Stepping stones cross a koi pond at Nanzen-ji temple, one of the top attractions in Kyoto.

Published: April 27, 2008

THE Saturday sun beamed down on central Kyoto, taking the edge off the November chill as I climbed onto my rented bicycle. I swerved through quiet alleys, past centuries-old wooden houses and Shinto shrines tended by generations of monks, and pedaled west to Arashiyama, a suburb of gardens, temples and bamboo forests at the foot of the mountains that ring this former imperial capital of Japan.

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Basil Childers for The New York Times

Bar Majorica in Pontocho, an alley that is the center of Kyoto’s bar and restaurant scene. More Photos »

Light glinted off the wide Hozu River. Figures crossed a distant bridge. Jasmine, bean cakes, tea and roasting yams scented the autumn air. But there was a problem, a big one: tourists. Lots of tourists. In fact, there were so many high-season visitors that traffic — foot, bike, car — came to a halt. Furious at the crowds and exhausted, I turned around and rode back to Kyoto proper.

Frankly, I should have known better. With its grand Buddhist temples and tucked-away shrines, its oh-so-close mountains and trickling canals, its spring-blossoming cherry trees and autumn-flaming maples, Kyoto may be Japan’s prettiest city — and that’s a curse as much as a blessing. Like a Japanese version of Colonial Williamsburg, it is jam-packed with tourists, who come to see the religio-historical sites by day, and feast and party with geishas by night.

Indeed, more than 48 million tourists visited this city of 1.5 million in 2006, according to the Japanese National Tourism Office. So perhaps it’s no surprise that Kyoto’s citizens may be among the country’s most standoffish, a closed society that keeps strangers at a distance. Some candy stores, for example, won’t let you in without an introduction from a trusted customer. Not even wealth will buy you entree into this closed society.

A fortune does, however, come in handy in Kyoto, which can seem ridiculously expensive. A night in a ryokan, or traditional inn, can easily run 30,000 yen per person (about $291 at 103 yen to the dollar). And a multicourse kaiseki meal, a Kyoto specialty, can cost the same — again per person.

Of course, I didn’t have a fortune, just $500 for the weekend, and I was apprehensive. Could I make Kyoto my own, unearth its secrets and escape with at least a few yen to my name?

The Hotel Nishiyama, which I’d found on the comprehensive directory at www.japaneseguesthouses.com, offered a tentative yes. On a quiet street not far from the Kamo River, the Nishiyama had an immaculate courtyard garden, friendly English-speaking staff and tatami-mat rooms at a reasonable 10,500 yen a night, including breakfast. It was also the only hotel in my price range that actually had a room available — though only for one night. The next day, I’d have to move on.

I arrived too early to check in, so I wandered around, taking note of cute cafes, a Galician restaurant and a Comme des Garçons boutique — all of which suggested I’d wound up in a chic neighborhood.

When I got back to the hotel, an old friend from grad school, Tucker, was waiting outside. But before we had a chance to catch up, he was leading me down the road to the Nijo Castle, whose painted silk screens he needed to examine; he was, he claimed, writing a book on Japanese art.

Not that I minded — Nijo Castle is one of Kyoto’s prime attractions (admission 600 yen). Completed in 1623, it was home to the Tokugawas, the shoguns who ruled Japan for almost 300 years, establishing rigid caste hierarchies and essentially cutting the country off from the outside world.

It’s easy to see the castle as emblematic of its self-imposed isolation: You have to cross two sets of fortifications to reach the main residence, where arrows direct you through a precise route from room to room, allowing barely enough time to appreciate the painted screens (no photography or sketching allowed!) before the crowds jostle you onward.

After saying goodbye to Tucker — he vanished almost as mysteriously as he’d appeared — I set off for Pontocho, a long, skinny alley that is the center of Kyoto’s restaurant and bar scene. Pontocho feels like a Japanese movie-set come to life: red lanterns and looming billboards light the way past dozens of restaurants, bars and teahouses, some forbidding by design (unmarked Shoji screen doors), others by price (8,000 yen a person for sukiyaki!).

A welcome exception was Bistro Zuzu. Dim, crowded, energetic and dominated by a long bar and open kitchen, Zuzu is an izakaya, or Japanese pub, that serves homey snacks, most under 1,000 yen and many with a French twist. A mizuna salad came with a poached egg and crunchy bits of bacon, like a frisée aux lardons. And the aptly misspelled “verry tender” beef ribs were finished with butter and a sprinkle of pink peppercorns.

But not everything bore Gallic influence: horse meat “sashimi” was as Japanese as it gets, the purplish slices surprisingly clean tasting. With a couple of frosty draft beers, sea-bream sashimi and a rice ball with tart pickles, I spent 4,630 yen — a lot for one person, I suppose, but I’d eaten enough for two and, for Pontocho, it was definitely cheap.

Afterward, I wandered to Temas, a boutique that applies ancient traditions of pigment dying to modern fashions. The clothes were pricey, but I’d gone for the bar upstairs.

Open only on Fridays, it was full of youngsters in ultrablack Temas gear, and even though my meager budget was evident in my outfit, they accepted me, slowly at first, then, when I told them I was from New York, quickly. If my Jim Beam hadn’t cost a shocking 1,300 yen (including a 500-yen cover charge), I might have stuck around a lot longer. As it was, I’d already spent almost a third of my weekend budget.

The next morning began with a wholesome breakfast of rice, fish, pickles and soup at the Nishiyama. Then I packed my bags and brought them to Ikoi-No-Ie, a mini-ryokan about 10 minutes south. It was no Nishiyama. The owners’ attitudes ranged from indifferent to surly, and my new room was spotless but spartan (4,750 yen a night).

Instead of settling in, I set off on the three-speed I had rented from Nishiyama. At 1,000 yen a day, it cost about the same as a day pass for the subway (or a short cab ride), and offered something priceless: independence. How else could I have discovered Sou-Sou?

This shop takes traditional split-toed tabi slippers, sheathes them in bright, Marimekko-like fabrics and slaps on rubber soles, so you can wear them outside. Very cute, and even affordable, but they didn’t have my wife’s size. Instead, I got her two pairs of adorable toe socks (1,000 yen).

After a quick, yummy sushi lunch at nearby Sarara (980 yen), recommended by Sou-Sou’s clerks, I pedaled back out to Arashiyama — a trip that wasted most of the day and left me tired and crushed.

I perked up, however, when I met Maya Hara, a Kyoto resident who is a friend of a friend. Over coffee and walnut cake (970 yen) at Efish, an exceedingly cute riverside cafe, she told me about how she’d become a priest at her family’s Buddhist temple, and clued me in to what became my favorite spot in town: Yoramu.

In the dark of early evening, a few blocks from the Hotel Nishiyama, Yoramu’s glass entrance glowed like a beacon. I entered, walked past a rock garden combed in waves and took a stool at the broad, well-lighted bar, behind which the proprietor, Israeli-born Yoram Ofer, stood guard over dozens of tall sake bottles. On the stereo, Thelonious Monk plunked piano keys. And in what felt like my first moment of solitude in Kyoto, I was the only customer.

Yoram — dark eyes, close-cropped hair, cryptic manner — asked me what I liked and, without naming them, poured out three small glasses (1,200 yen). The first had a pronounced yeasty flavor, almost like fresh bread. The second was unaccountably mild — until I sipped it after a plate of Yoram’s fresh-made falafel (500 yen), and it exploded with floral notes. The third — a Katori, the only one of the three sold in stores, Yoram said — was sour, yellowish, pungent, seemingly wrong in every way except that it tasted wonderful. It reminded me of Monk’s playing: oddly keyed and arrhythmic, but precise, intentional, glorious.

As I drank, time slowed down, and the crowds seemed impossibly distant. People go to Kyoto for the tranquillity of its temples — I had found my tranquil temple there.

But in Kyoto, the crush of people is never far away. The next morning, I left the bike behind and headed a few stops east on the clean and speedy subway, where a ride is 210 to 340 yen and day pass is 1,200 yen. I got off at the Nanzen-ji temple complex, possibly the most beautiful — and therefore most popular — shrine-temple-castle-garden agglomeration. It was madness.

Tourists of all nationalities swarmed up the enormous Sanmon gate (admission 500 yen), and swirled around and into the temple (500 yen), and manically snapped photos of the brilliant autumn leaves and the red-brick 19th-century aqueduct. They moved in sync, and I felt myself getting swallowed up again, until I spotted a tiny trail leading away from the temples. I took a deep breath, waded through the morass and followed the trail past a cemetery, up a set of stone steps and into the wooded hills.

There, not five minutes from the masses, I found a small shrine, empty and silent but for the white static of a nearby waterfall. Then I continued up the path toward a massive rock outcropping that promised views of the valley. I had hoped for isolation, but instead found two American college students sitting at the top.

The moment of solitude had eluded me again. But as I sat there with the students, trading snacks and stories about Kyoto’s affordability (or lack thereof), I realized that tranquillity with strangers isn’t so bad. There can be peace in the crowd.

So, when I returned from the woods, I let myself be enveloped by a sea of tourists taking pictures of the crimson maple trees. I even took one myself: it was stunning, the spindly leaves etched in fiery detail. It was even prettier when I looked at it again, at home, alone.

Total: 32,890 yen (including a 4,460-yen post-sake dinner at Yamase, a tofu restaurant recommended by Yoram), about $319 at 103 yen to the dollar.



Hotel Nishiyama, Gokomachi-dori, one and a half blocks north of Oike; (81-75) 222-1166; www.ryokan-kyoto.com.

Ikoi-No-Ie, 885 Ushitora-cho; (81-75) 354-8081; www.ikoi-no-ie.com.


Nijo Castle, Horikawa-dori and Nijo-dori; (81-75) 841-0096.

Nanzen-ji temple complex: take the Tozai line to Keage Station, then walk through the pedestrian tunnel.

Arashiyama: take the Keifuku rail line all the way to the end.


Bistro Zuzu, Takoyakushi-agaru, Pontocho; (81-75) 231-0736; www.zuzu.jp (Japanese only).

Efish, 798-1 Nishihasizume-cho; (81-75) 361-3069; www.shinproducts.com.

Yoramu, Nijo-dori, east of Karasuma; (81-75) 213-1512; www.sakebar-yoramu.com.

Sarara, 580 Nakano-cho; (81-75) 254-7545; www.wa-sarara.jp.

Yamase, Shinmachi-dori, south of Marutamachi-dori; (81-75) 213-5888.


Temas, 122-1 Ishiya-cho, Pontocho; (81-75) 257-1951; www.temas.jp.

Sou-Sou, multiple locations; www.sousou.co.jp.

2008年4月11日 星期五



Any one interested in having a unique dining experience. You can have breakfast, lunch, dinner or cocktail or invite your boss for a meeting while enjoying your meal.

50 meters above ground dining event arranged by a professional event arranger of Benji Fun company. It provides 22 seating complete with Chef, server, musician and you can select your own location without limitation.

Guarantee safety with the hoisting crane which can accommodate the whole band of musician, or making an automobile presentation to your customers. This restaurant is in Belgium.

2008年4月7日 星期一

Tibet protests force Beijing into IOC talks

Protesters disrupt Olympic relay in paris

The Mayor of Paris has cancelled a ceremony to mark the passage of
the Beijing Olympic torch, as officials draped a Tibetan flag over
the city hall facade. The Olympic torch relay was interrupted at
least twice on its journey through Paris. Security officials
extinguished the flame and moved the torch to a bus on two occasions
following protests by Pro-Tibet demonstrators. The flame had
travelled only 200 meters from its starting point at the Eiffel
tower before it had to be put out and transferred to a bus. On the
second occasion, an athlete in a wheelchair was carrying the flame
out of a Paris traffic tunnel when protesters stopped it. At least
five protestors have been arrested so far.

Tibet protests force Beijing into IOC talks

By Roger Blitz and Jimmy Burns in London, Ben Hall in Paris and Richard McGregor in Beijing

Published: April 7 2008 09:21 | Last updated: April 8 2008 01:06

Police officers apprehend an anti-China, pro-Tibet demonstrator, waving a Tibetan flag

Beijing officials are to hold urgent talks with senior members of the Olympic movement about the torch relay, as concern grows among International Olympic Committee members over the effect of pro-Tibet protests on the games.

The proposed discussions follow a second consecutive day of disruption for the torch relay in Europe. Protests by hundreds of pro-Tibetan campaigners and some French politicians against Chinese human rights abuses yesterday forced organisers to cut short the Olympic torch’s 28km trip through Paris.

Interactive map

Olympic torch relay

Chart the 2008 Olympic torch’s global journey

IOC insiders ruled out routes being curtailed or cancelled, but one said talks with Beijing would cover “how the integrity of the torch can be maintained”. One said the backlash against China’s action in Tibet was in danger of casting a “stain on the Olympic movement”.

On Monday night, protests had begun in San Francisco, where the next leg of the relay is due to begin on Wednesday, with campaigners scaling the Golden Gate Bridge.

Video: Olympic torch protests

Olympic torch in Paris

French police battle to protect the Olympic torch relay in Paris

In London, it emerged that Lord Coe, chairman of the city’s Olympic committee, was inadvertently recorded by Channel 4 News accusing some of the Chinese officials providing security for the torch of being “thugs”.

In comments to a colleague, he said if the organisers of the French part of the torch route do “one thing in Paris, it is to get rid of those guys. They tried to push me out of the way three times...they were thugs”.

Jacques Rogge, president of the IOC, made his strongest comments yet on China’s handling of unrest in Tibet, saying in Beijing he was very concerned “with the international situation and what has happened in Tibet”.

He said there was no momentum for a boycott of the games, but insiders said he and other senior IOC members were worried about the movement becoming tainted by the focus on China’s handling of Tibet.

Accompanying officials had to extinguish the flame on at least two occasions yesterday when protesters bearing Tibetan flags clashed with French police and tried to block the torch’s path along the banks of the Seine.

The last section of the route from the Arc de Triomphe to the south-east corner of the city was cancelled, with the torch completing its journey by bus, even though the French authorities had mobilised 3,000 police officers – some on in-line rollerskates – to secure the way.

Bertrand Delanoë, the socialist mayor of Paris, said Chinese officials had abruptly cancelled a 30-minute pause in the torch’s route in front of the capital’s town hall after the city council had draped a Tibetan flag over the building’s facade. Protest banners were also hung from the Eiffel Tower. The disruption followed a chaotic procession through London on Sunday, when 37 people were arrested. China’s Olympic organisers yesterday condemned the London protests as “vile”.

An internal British police investigation was under way on Monday night into why the event was so disrupted. Senior officers admitted they had not anticipated the level of protest around the torch.

With the relay continuing in the US on Wednesday, Hillary Clinton, the Democratic presidential hopeful, added her voice to calls for a boycott of the opening ceremony of the Olympics, saying George W. Bush should not attend unless there were “major changes by the Chinese government”. Mr Bush has said he will be at the opening.

Additional reporting by Daniel Dombey in Washington

2008年4月4日 星期五

Brandenburg Gates

Brandenburg Gate 在德國有兩處--柏林的最有名 另外在Potsdam


"Brandenburg Gate in Potsdam Square", p.77 (Journey to the East by Le Corbusier, Edited by Ivan Zaknic《東方游記》)

"布蘭登堡波茨坦廣場 " 第64頁(《東方游記》 [法] 勒•柯布西耶 著 管筱明 譯 上海世紀出版集團2007年1月出版)


布蘭登堡門位於柏林市中心,東側是巴黎廣場德語Pariser Platz)和菩提樹下大街德語Unter den Linden)的盡頭,西側是三月十八日廣場德語Platz des 18. März)和六月十七日大街德語Straße des 17. Juni)的起點。

Brandenburg Gate
The Brandenburg Gate
The Brandenburg Gate

The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. It is located between the Pariser Platz and the Platz des 18. März and is the only remaining gate of a series through which one formerly entered Berlin. One block to its north lies the Reichstag. It constitutes the monumental termination of Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees which led directly to the royal residence. It was commissioned by Friedrich Wilhelm II as a sign of peace and built by Carl Gotthard Langhans from 1788 to 1791.

Design & History

The Brandenburg Gate consists of twelve Doric columns, six to each side, forming five roadways; citizens originally were allowed to use only the outer two. Atop the gate is the Quadriga, with Viktoria, the goddess of victory driving the Quadriga. The gate is 26.00 metres (65 ft) high, 65.50 metres (213 ft) wide, and 11.00 metres (36 ft) thick.

The Gate's design is based upon the Propylea, the gateway to the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. Berlin's history of architectural classicism is long: first, Baroque, and then neo-Palladian. The Gate was the first neo-classical Greek revival structure in Berlin. Yet, by the 1830s, it became the Spreeathen ("Athens on the River Spree") by architect Karl Gotthard von Langhans. The capital Quadriga was made by Johann Gottfried Schadow.

Napoleon in Berlin.
Napoleon in Berlin.

The Brandenburg Gate's design has remained unchanged since its completion, yet it has played different political roles in German history. After the 1806 Prussian defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleon stole and took the Quadriga to Paris, however, after his defeat in 1814 and the Prussian Parisian occupation by General Ernst von Pfuel, the Quadriga was restored to Berlin, and Viktoria's olive wreath exchanged for the Iron Cross, becoming goddess of victory.

Potsdam's Brandenburg Gate
Potsdam's Brandenburg Gate

North of the Old Market Square is the oval French Church (Französische Kirche), erected in the 1750s by Boumann for the Huguenot community, and the Brandenburg Gate (built in 1770, not to be confused with the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin).



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布蘭登堡門德語Brandenburger Tor)是位於德國首都柏林新古典主義風格建築,由普魯士國王腓特烈·威廉二世下令於1788年1791年間建造,以紀念普魯士七年戰爭取得的勝利。




[編輯] 地理位置


布蘭登堡門位於柏林市中心,東側是巴黎廣場德語Pariser Platz)和菩提樹下大街德語Unter den Linden)的盡頭,西側是三月十八日廣場德語Platz des 18. März)和六月十七日大街德語Straße des 17. Juni)的起點。




[編輯] 建築







[編輯] 歷史


[編輯] 普魯士王國初期初建



[編輯] 普魯士王國鼎盛時期擴建


腓特烈二世繼承父親腓特烈·威廉一世的統治,大規模發展普魯士軍事和擴張領土,並贏得了1756年至1763年的七年戰爭,這場英國-普魯士同盟與法國奧地利俄國同盟之間為爭奪殖民地和霸權而進行的戰爭曠日持久,最終以英國和普魯士的勝利而告終,普魯士從此崛起,成為英、法、奧、俄外的又一歐洲列強。腓特烈二世不僅贏得了「腓特烈大帝」和「軍事天才」的稱號,也在他1786年去世後為繼任的侄子腓特烈·威廉二世留 下了一個穩定的普魯士。腓特烈·威廉二世繼任後立即開始擴建柏林城牆,在1786年至1802年的擴建工程期間,為了紀念這場使得普魯士崛起的七年戰爭的 勝利和他剛剛去世的叔叔,腓特烈·威廉二世於1788年下令重新建造布蘭登堡門,歷經三年於1791年完工。莊嚴肅穆、巍峨壯麗的布蘭登堡門充分顯示了當 時處於鼎盛時期的普魯士王國國都的威嚴。


[編輯] 普魯士戰敗,拿破崙劫走勝利女神




[編輯] 普魯士重新崛起,勝利女神歸來






[編輯] 第二次世界大戰,帝國滅亡城門被毀



[編輯] 冷戰時期,分隔東西兩德



1956年9月21日,柏林市自治政府決定修復布蘭登堡門,雖然東柏林和西柏林當時仍相互敵對,但是在布蘭登堡門的重建工程中卻合作很好,東、西柏 林的文物修復專家根據在二戰中搶拓下來的石膏模型和檔案照片重新鑄造了一套駟馬戰車及女神鵰像。1957年12月14日重建完工,東柏林市政大會決定將雕 像上的鐵十字勳章和鷹鷲撤下,認為它們代表著普魯士的軍國主義


20世紀80年代初,當時的西柏林市市長魏茨澤克[7]曾說過:「只要布蘭登堡門還關著,德國統一問題就沒有解決」(德語:Solange das Brandenburger Tor geschlossen ist, ist die Deutsche Frage offen[8])。1984年起魏茨澤克擔任德國聯邦總統,5年後又連任一屆,布蘭登堡門在他的第二個任期內最終得以重新開放。

1987年6月12日,美國總統雷根在布蘭登堡門前發表著名的演說:「戈巴契夫總書記,如果你要尋求和平,如果你要為蘇聯和東歐尋求繁榮,如果你要尋求自由:就到這扇門來吧!戈巴契夫先生,打開這扇門!戈巴契夫先生,拆除這堵牆!」(英語:General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall![9])。


[編輯] 德國統一,柏林城門重開




[編輯] 布蘭登堡門的重建與柏林的城市規劃



修復過程雲集了世界著名的建築師,廣場周圍的重建建築遵守了嚴格的城市建設規定: 新建築的形狀、大小和風格必須同以前的廣場風格相一致,現代建築與傳統的建築風格融為一體[13]。緊貼布蘭登堡門左右兩側的李伯曼大樓(德語:Haus Liebermann)和桑摩大樓(德語:Haus Sommer)得以重建,新建築繼承了原建築的風格,但又比原建築略高,以便拉近同布蘭登堡門的距離,從而更加烘托出了布蘭登堡門和巴黎廣場的結構。布蘭登堡門東南方是柏林最豪華的飯店阿德隆飯店(德語:Hotel Adlon),它重建後一部分為歷史風格,一部分則為現代建築風格。法國大使館、英國大使館、美國大使館和藝術學院等也紛紛搬回了它們在巴黎廣場的原址,都是按二戰前的圖紙重建的。



[編輯] 象徵意義





[編輯] 衍生物

[編輯] 郵票




[編輯] 德國馬克



[編輯] 歐元硬幣



[編輯] 紀念活動




由莫特博士創意的柏林「愛的大遊行」(德語:Love Parade)每年七月在布蘭登堡門前的六月十七日大街舉行,它是世界上規模最大的電子音樂[16]




[編輯] 參考資料及註釋

  1. ^ 朗漢斯(Carl Gotthard Langhans,1732年12月15日—1808年10月1日),普魯士建築師
  2. ^ 沙多夫(Johann Gottfried Schadow,1764年5月20日—1850年1月27日),普魯士雕塑家
  3. ^ 中國網:穿過三座凱旋門
  4. ^ 另一說法為,雕像在設計之初為「和平女神」,1814年雕像從巴黎回到柏林後被添加了普魯士鐵十字勳章,才改為「勝利女神」。
  5. ^ 新浪網: 《大國崛起》第六集——帝國春秋
  6. ^ 《柏林戰役的血腥記錄》
  7. ^ 里夏德·馮·魏茨澤克(Richard Karl Freiherr von Weizsäcker,1920年4月15日─),德國的政治家,1981年至1984年任西柏林市市長,1984年至1994年任德國聯邦總統
  8. ^ Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung: Brandenburger Tor - berlin.de
  9. ^ 雷根總統圖書館: 1987年6月12日美國總統雷根在布蘭登堡門前的講話
  10. ^ 凱·迪珂曼、拉爾夫·格爾克·駱約特: 我的目標是德國統一——科爾自述. 瀋陽: 遼寧人民出版社, 1999.
  11. ^ Helmut Kohl: Ich wollte Deutschlands Einheit. Bearbeitet von Kai Diekmann und Ralf Georg Reuth. Ullstein, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-548-33241-2.
  12. ^ 榮格·雷亞: 沒有柏林圍牆的十五年.
  13. ^ 柏林官方中文網: 柏林360度全景畫冊.
  14. ^ 貝蒂娜·馮·阿尼姆(Bettina von Arnim,1785年4月4日—1859年1月20日),德國女作家,德國浪漫主義的代表人物
  15. ^ 柏林除夕新年晚會
  16. ^ 新浪網: 五十萬人參加德國柏林「愛的大遊行」.
  17. ^ 「柏林180°」
  18. ^ 柏林官方中文網: 2006年世界杯足球賽
  19. ^ 財經時報: 柏林球迷派對收入可觀

[編輯] 參考文獻

  • Werner, Heike: Architektur und Geschichte in Deutschland. Heike Werner Verlag, München 2006, S. 94-95, ISBN 3-9809471-1-4.
  • Peter Feist: Das Brandenburger Tor. (Der historische Ort Nr. 33) Kai Homilius Verlag, Berlin 1997, 2. Auflage 2004, ISBN 3-931121-32-1.
  • Laurenz Demps: Das Brandenburger Tor – Ein Symbol im Wandel. Verlagshaus Braun, Berlin 2003, 1. Auflage, ISBN 3-935455-15-1.
  • Ulrike Krenzlin, Johann Gottfried Schadow: Die Quadriga: Vom preußischen Symbol zum Denkmal der Nation, Frankfurt am Main 1991.
  • Friedbert Pflüger: Richard von Weizsäcker – Ein Portrait aus der Nähe. 1. Auflage, München 1993.
  • Wein, Martin, Die Weizsäckers, Geschichte einer deutschen Familie, Stuttgart, 1988, S. 470 ff.
  • Atelier Chiara: 180°Berlin .
  • Helmut Kohl: Ich wollte Deutschlands Einheit. Bearbeitet von Kai Diekmann und Ralf Georg Reuth. Ullstein, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-548-33241-2.
  • 凱·迪珂曼、拉爾夫·格爾克·駱約特: 我的目標是德國統一——科爾自述. 瀋陽: 遼寧人民出版社, 1999.
  • 丁建弘: 德國通史. 上海: 上海社會科學院出版社, 2002.
  • 德意志共和國統計年鑒(1989). 柏林: 德國統計局, 1990.
  • 孫春玲: 德國統一11年回顧總結. 國際資料信息, 2001.
  • 新華網: 德國統一的象徵──布蘭登堡門.