2011年9月23日 星期五


近 20年多少知道此生態/物種天堂


2011年9月15日 星期四

Artist-designed rooms draw the curious to Yokohama

Artist-designed rooms draw the curious to Yokohama



photoProprietor Kose Iwamoto on the balcony of his art-themed Hostel Zen in Yokohama (Louis Templado)photoAn inner corridor turned into a musical chime (Louis Templado)photoLab coats and mounted insects in the stairwell (Louis Templado)photoInside one of the art rooms at the hostel (Louis Templado)

For about the price of admission to all the exhibits at the current Yokohama Triennale 2011 international exhibition of contemporary art, you could also spend the night in it.

Although not part of the Triennale per se, at least one local hostel has jumped into the scene, inviting artists to remake rooms in live-in installations.

"The people around here are getting old, and we have to try something new," says Kose Iwamoto, who runs Hostel Zen, located in the Kotobukicho neighborhood of central Yokohama.

The hostel unveiled its art at the beginning of August, timed with the opening of the Yokohoma Triennale, which is held every three years at locales around the city and continues until Nov. 6.

The city is making a name for itself with contemporary art -- as a tool for urban redevelopment. Its Koganei district, once a warren of prostitutes in window displays, for example, has been refashioned into cafes and galleries over the past decade.

Among the artists whose works are at Hostel Zen are Yusuke Asai, Tei Erikusa, Asae Soya and Junji Shiotsu. Interesting as their creations are on their own (as is the idea of staring up at them as you lie in your futon), there's no ignoring their quirky contrast with the Kotobukicho neighborhood.

Set between Yokohama's magnetic Chinatown and Yokohama Stadium, Kotobukicho is Japan's version of the Bowery, a village-like amalgamation of so-called "doya" flophouses (which here are actually apartment buildings), bars, betting parlors and, in the middle of it all, a kindergarten. Children's laughter and the moans and groans of aging day laborers fill the streets.

"Every building you can see here is basically a flophouse," says Iwamoto, whose family has been local landlords for three generations. There are close to 200 such buildings in the neighborhood, all with rooms three-and-a-half tatami mats in size, occupied by former day laborers who are now receiving public assistance from the city.

Hostel Zen is actually the top two floors of one of the apartment blocks. It opened three years ago as one of a handful of hostels catering to foreign tourists on a tight budget (rooms are 3,000 yen, or $39). Just around the corner is another hostel, Porto, similarly featuring art.

"Backpackers from nearby countries got to be a normal sight around here," says Iwamoto. "But after the big earthquake they've completely stopped coming."

Instead the hostel is drawing Japanese families who want to take their time in Chinatown, sports fans from far away and music groupies. The neighborhood fills with Japanese Rasta heads whenever there's a reggae festival at the stadium.

The installations at Hostel Zen, no surprise, also draw artists. Among them is conceptual photographer Yousuke Takeda, some of whose works are hanging in the place. Although he lives in Tokyo, Takeda is a frequent guest at the hostel, often leading fellow artists there.

"It looks rough at first, there's a warmth and openness here that I can't find anymore in Tokyo," says the photographer. Likewise the rooms at the lodge may be cramped, but they offer their own brand of contact.

"Going to a gallery or museum is one way to see art," he adds, "but you get a different sense of appreciation when you spend the night with it."

2011年9月12日 星期一

小城交通人多多 (義大利)

Comitini, Italy, population 960, does not appear to have major traffic problems, but it still employs 9 people to manage the flow.
Sandro Scalia for The New York Times

Austerity in Italy? Check the Traffic

A jobs-for-votes system may hinder the country’s efforts to cut its deficit. Above, Comitini, Italy, has 960 residents and nine traffic officers.

server hall in Finland

For Data Center, Google Goes for Cold
Google's opening of a $273 million server hall in Finland is boosting hopes that other big Internet companies will build data centers in the region, attracted by its cold climate and low electricity prices.

2011年9月10日 星期六








月光灑招提,圓柱垂影時,跫音踏地靜,夜深共冥思。林祁 譯






在伽藍線西側遺留有鐘樓和戒壇。鐘樓上掛的是平安時代的梵鐘,鐘上刻有後世追加的銘文“南都左京”, 這顯然是“右京”五條的誤刻,真是個有趣的誤會。



这是奈良市五条町。现在看来是奈良的郊区,可在1200前日本的都城还在奈良时,这里就是当时的平城京五条二坊,也就是说位于首都的中心地区。西历 七五九年(天平宝字三年)天武天皇的皇子新田部亲王的旧宅邸地被赐予鉴真并建成了唐招提寺。招提意思是在佛身边修行的道场的意思,寺名寓意就是此寺庙是为 唐朝来的鉴真和尚在此修行而建立的道场。唐招提寺又称建初律寺,这是因为我国佛教是以中国四分律的南山宗戒律为中心的,而该寺又是我国最初的律寺。时至今 日依然被尊为日本律宗总本山。

寺庙创立者鉴真(过海大师)原是唐朝扬州大明寺高僧,应我国圣武天皇之邀前来授戒。从出发到七五四年(天平胜宝六年)到达日本为止共花费了十二年时 间,尽管经历了五次失败但矢志不渝,到奈良时双目都已失明。鉴真一到日本马上在大佛殿前开设戒坛,为圣武孝谦两天皇及众多高僧授戒。虽然当时的日本已具备 了佛教国家的意识形态,但起到画龙点睛作用的当属鉴真大师。这些功绩业已成为中学的教材内容之一,可以说鉴真东渡不仅对日本的佛教史,对整个天平文化也产 生了无可估量的影响,对于日本而言他的确是有功之臣。

从东大寺戒律院退出之后建立了该寺,修行了四年于七六三年(天平宝字七年)五月六日圆寂,享年七十六岁。弟子们预知鉴真即将圆寂特制作了大师的生前 肖像(干漆・国宝)现安放在山内开山御影堂,每年六月六日(农历五月六日相当于阳历的六月六日)忌辰前后大约一周时间对外开放,供人瞻仰。面对寿像俳圣芭 蕉也对鉴真东渡的义举感动不已,为此留下了佳句。大师的墓在御影堂东边的小树林中。佛教文化兴盛的时代高僧辈出,史上留名的不在少数,但他们的墓除了偶然 被发现的行基菩萨的墓地之外,无一被发现过。身后一千二百年香火不断受人朝拜的只有鉴真一人。

然而这所寺院也曾历尽沧桑,荣枯盛衰:有过方四町内那竞相壮丽的美景,西山四十八院的辉煌以及镰仓戒律复兴时盟主觉盛和尚的中兴,也经历了近世(江 户时代)东塔及十多间堂社的衰落和废佛毁释运动的风暴。现如今虽说比不上建成当初的辉煌,但依然保存了国宝十七件,重要文物二百多件,成为天平时代文化繁 荣的有力见证。它们使人联想起了为什么这座寺院当初被称作“海东无双的大伽蓝”、“绝尘名刹”。


以开山祖师鉴真和尚一千二百周年忌日为契机,作为寺观复兴事业按照天平式样重建了南天门,在南天门正面可以仰望到雄伟的金堂。这是我国现存的最大的天平建筑,也是天平金堂的唯一遗迹。它那厚重的历史积淀感以及充满生气的姿态让游人无不叹为观止。 屋脊上那历尽一千二百年风霜的鸱吻具有一种简洁美,它和会津八一诗中描绘的大圆柱一起会让人不由得想起遥远的希腊神殿。
月光洒招提,圓柱垂影时,跫音踏地静,夜深共冥思。 林祁 译

每年的中秋之夜在此举行向诸佛献灯的上月赞佛会。前来参拜的人们在秋露中享受着参佛的喜悦。金堂的后面的讲堂秉承了奈良上代寺院的特点,是传经布道 的场所。这座建筑是鉴真大师在创建之初,由宫廷赐予的平城宫的东朝集殿迁筑而成的,所以特别引人关注。占地一百公顷的平城宫城址上现如今已是片瓦无存,成 了草地,幸而有这一建筑迁移至此才得以保存至今。通过它可窥到当时宫殿的一斑,其重要性不仅仅在于其是天平时代的建筑物。内部还安置了本尊弥勒如来(镰仓 时代)持国・增长二天的像(奈良时代)。

在连接金堂・讲堂的伽蓝的东侧矗立着寺内唯一的多层建筑舍利殿(鼓楼)。该建筑是镰仓时代的,原是为了安放鉴真大师的三千佛舍利而建的。现在每年五 月十九日在此举办撒团扇的仪式(中兴忌梵网会)时,给参拜者分发古式团扇,这种古朴仪式想必会勾起许多人多过去的怀念吧。这个仪式源于受过中兴和尚即觉盛 大悲菩萨熏陶的法华寺尼僧们为追善和尚,将供奉于灵前的团扇赠与众信徒。这个仪式同前面提到的宗祖鉴真的开山舍利会(六月五日・六日),解脱和尚创始的释 迦念佛会(十月二十一日-二十三日)都是该寺的重要的法事。到了那几天,整个寺庙都是秩序井然的参拜人群。在舍利殿东邻的有座长而大的建筑,这是三面僧房 东室的遗迹(镰仓时代),南边被改造成了解脱上人释迦念佛会的道场(礼堂)。僧房是古代寺院作为学问寺实行全寄宿制的历史见证,是过去许多实行严格戒律的 律僧们起居的处所。

在连接金堂・讲堂的伽蓝的东侧矗立着寺内唯一的多层建筑舍利殿(鼓楼)。该建筑是镰仓时代的,原是为了安放鉴真大师的三千佛舍利而建的。现在每年五 月十九日在此举办撒团扇的仪式(中兴忌梵网会)时,给参拜者分发古式团扇,这种古朴仪式想必会勾起许多人多过去的怀念吧。这个仪式源于受过中兴和尚即觉盛 大悲菩萨熏陶的法华寺尼僧们为追善和尚,将供奉于灵前的团扇赠与众信徒。这个仪式同前面提到的宗祖鉴真的开山舍利会(六月五日・六日),解脱和尚创始的释 迦念佛会(十月二十一日-二十三日)都是该寺的重要的法事。到了那几天,整个寺庙都是秩序井然的参拜人群。在舍利殿东邻的有座长而大的建筑,这是三面僧房 东室的遗迹(镰仓时代),南边被改造成了解脱上人释迦念佛会的道场(礼堂)。僧房是古代寺院作为学问寺实行全寄宿制的历史见证,是过去许多实行严格戒律的 律僧们起居的处所。

在东边还有两座校仓(可防潮的屋子)南边的是藏经楼,北边的藏宝楼。两者都为遗留甚少的天平校仓。尤其是藏经楼为该寺创立之前新田部亲王宅邸时就有 的遗存建筑,较七五六年竣工的正仓院宝库更加古老,是我国现存的最古老的校仓。沿着藏宝楼背侧的石板路朝东行进到深处有架高式的收藏设施新藏宝楼。这是为 了更好的保存寺内的文物于前些年建起的建筑,除了工艺・绘画・经文之外还将那些无处搁置而临时放在讲堂里的破损佛像也移到了此处。这些雕刻在雕刻史上都被 规为唐招提寺式样的范畴而被尊崇。广为流传的名宝如来的立像也在这里。这些破损的佛像雕刻尽管已经结束了佛的作用,但其具有的那种无拘无束的美仍然魅力十 足。

鉴真大师墓的西边幽静之处有座宏大的殿宇。这是把南都兴福寺旧一乘院门遗址的辰殿遗址经过精密地复原并移到此处的古建筑,通过它可以推测平安时代贵 族的宅邸及生活方式,因而是极具价值的稀有资料。现在作为安置大师尊像的御影堂,也是后辈僧众供奉宗祖的地方。大师的尊像在六月六日开山忌的前后三天开门 供人参观。同时展出的还有御影堂辰殿里画家东山魁夷一九七五年做作的屏风画“山云”“涛声”等。

在伽蓝线西侧遗留有钟楼和戒坛。钟楼上挂的是平安时代的梵钟,钟上刻有后世追加的铭文“南都左京”, 这显然是“右京”五条的误刻,真是个有趣的误会。

戒坛是三层石造的豪华壮丽的建筑,有人经常把它和鉴真在东大寺的土造戒坛相比较。虽说因江户时代末期的一场大火而失去了外部建筑部分,但它那饱经风 霜的凝重感还是然让人肃然起敬。最近在最高的一层安放了模仿印度・圣地古塔制作的宝塔,附近也得以修葺,曾经的受戒场所得以面目一新。










命名の由来 [編集]

高知市街地から国分川を越えた東に位置する。地形が五台山 (中国)に似ている事から、これに肖って「五台山」と命名された。命名者は行基だと言われている。

特色 [編集]

山頂には展望台があり、ここからは高知市街地や浦戸湾を眺める事ができる。 山麓には夢窓疎石開基の吸江寺四国八十八箇所第31番札所の竹林寺や、高知県護国神社高知県立牧野植物園が立地する。



放送送信所 [編集]



交通アクセス [編集]

  • 高知駅からMY遊バス(毎日運行)で21分、「五台山展望台」下車徒歩すぐ。
  • はりまや橋より土佐電鉄バス25系統(前浜・パークタウン線)で11分、「五台山農協前」下車徒歩25分。階段を登り続けるので注意。

2011年9月6日 星期二

紐約 2011 0906

紐約 2011 0906

New Yorkers Say Mayor Has Not Improved Schools

City residents remain broadly dissatisfied with the quality of the public schools, according to a New York Times/CBS News poll.

Former Gov. David A. Paterson made his debut Tuesday as an afternoon drive-time radio host on WOR-AM (710).
Fred R. Conrad/The New York Times
City Room

Introducing David Paterson, Radio Host

Former Gov. David A. Paterson’s first radio guest was his former running mate and boss, Eliot Spitzer. “I finally got a job that you didn’t have to give me,” he said.

Opinion »

Yes, We Need Jobs. But What Kind?

Creating jobs with wages below the poverty line doesn’t solve America’s problems.




清华大学(Tsinghua University)是中国著名高等学府,坐落于北京西北郊风景秀丽的清华园,是中国高层次人才培养和科学技术研究的重要基地。

  清华大学的前身是清华学堂,成立于1911年,当初是清政府建立的留美预备学校。1912 年更名为清华学校,为尝试人才的本地培养,1925 年设立大学部,同年开办国学研究院,1928年更名为“国立清华大学”。1937年抗日战争爆发后,南迁长沙,与北京大学、南开大学联合办学,组建国立长 沙临时大学,1938年迁至昆明,改名为国立西南联合大学。1946年,清华大学迁回清华园原址复校。






[編輯] 歷史


[編輯] 大事

2011年9月5日 星期一



Vernal Fall and the Merced River are among the wonders that lure tourists to Yosemite National Park.
Annie Tritt for The New York Times

At Yosemite, Perils of the Great Outdoors

Since the beginning of the year, 18 people have died at Yosemite National Park, an unfortunate increase from recent years and a cause for alarm for the park’s rangers.

讓我想起 趙家酒店中的高手 :


Friday, February 2nd, 1968

六月十日 晴極了

出了海華,車子向五十號公路的東部走。美國的好公路只有兩種,這一條當年也算是有名的大路,只是更新的超級公路不斷地建,這種當中用花木隔開,一邊 兩線的快速道路已漸成二流的道路了。天氣極好,沒有雲的天上是一望無際的藍,車窗裡吹著的是舊金山灣這一帶的海風,油箱裡滿滿的,腳底下的油門感覺到的是 那幾個汽缸裡鼓足的勁。

一路東行,五十號公路轉到一百二十號,路漸行漸小漸高,加州特有的西部荒原漸漸被紅木、青松所取代。山路裡沒有「鳥鳴山更幽」的味道,現代文明用尖 利的刀斧在跡近洪荒的山地裡深深地烙上一條既長又平的帶子。熊、鹿、印地安人難得見了,便有也在那僅有的保留地、國家公園裡。 而那一條文明的烙痕又每天不斷地送許多受夠了文明熏陶的人去體驗那些遙遠的自然。自然是離我們遠了,從燧人氏第一次取到火種的時候,人類便不再臣服於自 然。有時候我奇怪我們在做甚麼?但我們實在太忙,是嗎?瞧著隔座的她,我們已差不多開了五小時的車,路牌上所說的七哩崎嶇已差不多走完。快到了,我說,你 能夠替 Yosemite 找一個翻譯名字嗎?像翡冷翠那樣美的名字?(more…)

2011年9月4日 星期日

Thatching plans for an ecological future



PhotoThatchers take a well-earned rest after toiling at a 3-day workshop in Kobe's Kita Ward. (Provided by Kayabuki-ya)PhotoThatchers get down to business in Kyoto. (Provided by Kayabuki-ya)

Such is the march of progress. Concrete, metal, wood, carbon slats and clay roof tiles define the way homes are built today.

But over the centuries, one technique has endured: the thatched roof. Not only is it one of the oldest building techniques known, it offers the added advantages of durability and protection from the elements -- although one cannot downplay the risks of fire hazard.

The work of creating a thatched roof from scratch also fosters community spirit, still alive and well in rural Japan but less so in the nation's cities.

Although many regard thatching as a dying art, a new generation of craftsmen in Japan is trying to keep it alive. One of those is Minoru Shiozawa, a representative of Kayabuki-ya, a company that runs thatching workshops.

"I don't think it will ever disappear," says Shiozawa. "As well as being a symbol of tradition and living in harmony with nature, it fulfills the requirements of modern architecture: It's sustainable, requires no gas or electricity and produces zero carbon emissions."

This summer, efforts to conserve energy in Japan have sharpened people's appreciation for traditional ecological practices. Although for some that merely means turning the air-conditioner up a notch or two, a more extreme step would be to live in a thatched house--assuming one could afford one -- since they are naturally cool in the summer and warm in the winter.

This was well-known in the Edo Period (1603-1868), when thatched houses were the norm. Back then, thatching was a social activity that sustained "yui," or community bonds.

Villagers got together to harvest grasses and reeds grown on communal land, before identifying the neighbor's house that most needed renovating, and working on the roof together. As neighbors knotted straw, they also metaphorically knotted together in a social sense, bound by relationships of obligation and goodwill.

As ecologist Azby Brown wrote in his book, "Just Enough," thatching was a "microcosm of village society and its values," since it involved free materials, cooperative labor, extensive re-use and zero waste.

It also preserved the environment.

"Human intervention, in the form of harvesting the reeds and grasses, is actually a form of conservation. It keeps the fields and paddies healthy, and used thatch can be used as compost, feeding the natural cycle," explains Shiozawa.

One of the reeds used, "phragmites australis," or "yoshi" in Japanese, also cleans streams and paddy water by absorbing phosphorus and nitrogen, preventing mold.

Thatching went into sharp decline after the Meiji Era (1868-1912) triggered a wave of modernization. The number of experienced craftsmen declined dramatically.

However, after the village of Shirakawa-go in Gifu Prefecture, which is full of unique "gassho"-style thatched houses, gained U.N. World Heritage status in 1995, thatchers experienced a swell in demand, and a new generation of craftsmen was born.

"Even though there's no longer an expert thatcher in every village, there's a growing number of specialists in the construction industry," says Shiozawa. "Many traditional restaurants, and hotels like to have thatched roofs because it evokes a kind of nostalgia for the past."

Although the process is both time- and labor- intensive, Shiozawa estimates that it would take seven full-time staff and five part-timers two months to complete a short course in thatching a 300-meter-square roof. The course, which typically lasts three days, teaches the basics of the craft.

"A thatched house is a piece of cultural heritage that you are in charge of preserving for the next person to use," says Shiozawa. "If we don't teach the next generation how to live sustainably, we will inevitably reach a state where we have exhausted all our resources. That's why we're trying to educate the next generation with our workshops."

* * *

To learn more about Kayabuki-ya and to book courses, please visit (http://kayabuki-ya.net)

Beijing: the most liveable city in China, for whom?

為誰辛苦為誰忙: Beijing: the most liveable city in China, for whom?

Beijing: the most liveable city in China, for whom?
英國《金融時報》 席佳琳 報導

It would be funny if it wasn't so sad. The Economist Intelligence Unit's latest ranking has named Beijing the most liveable city in China.

這本來會是一件很可笑的事情,要不是因為它這麼可悲的話​​。 《經濟學人智庫》(EIU)在其發布的最新排名中,將北京評為中國內地最宜居城市。

Yes, that's right – the Chinese capital which, when the news came out on Wednesday, was suffocating under a dark grey blanket of smog that hadn't lifted for days and which has been covering it most of this summer.


Of course it always depends on what you measure. Even Beijing's notorious air quality can be classified as “fine” by the municipal government on a day when the skies are a sickly white and you have difficulty breathing. On such a day, the US Embassy often has much higher readings (including the notorious 'Crazy Bad' reading) because its equipment measures much finer particles.

當然,這總是取決於你考量的內容。儘管北京的空氣質量臭名遠揚,但是哪怕這天天空慘白、人們呼吸困難,北京市政府也可能將空氣質量歸類為“良好”。在這樣的天氣,美國大使館通常給出的空氣質量指標要糟糕得多(包括著名的“瘋狂的糟”(Crazy Bad)),因為其設備測量的顆粒更加精細。

According to the EIU, the cities are ranked by factors including stability, the environment, healthcare, culture, infrastructure and education. It is certainly true that Beijing has better healthcare and education than most other Chinese cities, and a richer cultural offering.


But this is the city where millions of drivers suffer in perennial traffic jams everyday. ​​Where the cost of housing has soared to levels that the millions of workers that keep Beijing running can only afford a bed in a basement or a room in a village two hours from their workplace.


Perhaps more than any other city in China, the capital is also a place where only a minority of residents enjoy full economic and social rights. To prevent the traffic from breaking down completely, the government heavily restricted the right to buy cars last year. To rein in galloping property prices, authorities also heavily restricted the right to buy houses earlier this year. To limit migration, the government is forcing thousands of children into separation from their parents – during the summer holidays, it razed 30 schools for migrant worker children, who had no option but to return to their native villages.


The compilers of the index must have noticed the description by Ai Weiwei, China's most prominent artist, of Beijing as a “constant nightmare” just days ago. In a piece for Newsweek, Mr Ai, an outspoken critic of the government who disappeared into months of detention earlier this year, described the capital as a violent city without any trust, a place run by armies of migrant workers, whom he calls Beijing's slaves, for a class of newly-rich.


When that critique appeared, the ranking was probably long finished. Native Beijingers, however, are making the best of the situation. Most of them have a healthy dose of national and local pride.


But as the news of the EIU ranking makes the rounds, their equally healthy dose of raw humour is gaining the upper hand. The capital's new title is met with sarcasm in the blogosphere and in the streets. “Most livable city for millionaires,” said Jin Hong, a taxi driver.