2012年6月28日 星期四

A deluge of data makes cities laboratories for those seeking to run them better

Urban research

The laws of the city

A deluge of data makes cities laboratories for those seeking to run them better

NO FACE looks alike, but human bodies and their genetic make-up are almost identical. Cities too have distinctive charms—but are surprisingly alike behind their façades. Regardless of size, their populations grow at the same average rate everywhere in the world. A city twice as large as its neighbour is likely to be 15% richer. The mix of green space and built-up areas tends to be equal everywhere.
Such findings reflect a recent shift in urban research. Better technology has turned cities into fountains of data that confirm known regularities and reveal striking new patterns. This could transform how cities are regarded, built and managed. Attempts to contain urban sprawl, long the prevailing paradigm of urban planning, for instance, could fall out of favour. Cities could be run with the sort of finely tuned mix of technology and performance associated with Formula 1 racing cars.
Back in the 1940s, George Zipf, an American researcher, noted that a city’s population is inversely proportional to its rank in a country. His law holds that the largest city is always about twice as big as the second largest, three times as big as the third largest, and so on. Other regularities have emerged since. Big cities decentralise as they grow, creating more jobs outside the centre. Urban population density in all industrialised countries declines slowly as you move away from the centre. (Moscow, exceptionally, is the other way round.)
The lack of good numbers used to limit such studies. Now data abound. The United Nations and other organisations make most of their statistics freely available. Data have also become more comparable between cities and even between countries. Most important, transport and telecoms networks, and social media, are spawning new data as a free by-product.
This has triggered new research. For instance Geoffrey West and Luis Bettencourt, both of the Santa Fe Institute, found that cities scale much like organisms. Just as an elephant is, roughly speaking, a larger but more energy-efficient version of a gorilla, big cities are thrifty versions of small ones. For a metropolis twice the size of another, the length of electric cables, number of gas stations and other bits of infrastructure decrease by about 15% per inhabitant. But beasts do not enjoy the cities’ rising returns to scale. Income, patents, savings and other signs of wealth rise by around 15% when a city’s size doubles. In short, urbanites consume less but produce more.
Shlomo Angel, an urban planning expert at New York University, gathered historical and census data from hundreds of cities, digitised thousands of maps and had computers count millions of pixels on satellite pictures. Between 1990 and 2000 the surfaces of each of the 120 cities he and his team studied grew on average more than twice as fast as their populations. These rates, he says, are unlikely to change. That means that the amount of urban land will double in only 19 years, whereas the urban population will double in 43 years.
Carlo Ratti, who heads the Senseable City Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was one of the first to sift through the data produced by telecoms networks. One aim was to find out how a country’s internal borders reflect human connections. In Britain the English and the Scots hardly talk, at least on landlines; west of London, where many of Britain’s high-tech firms are based, a new region is developing. American states such as Georgia and Alabama belong together, whereas California splits three ways. In Portugal, if a city is twice the size of another, people make 12% more phone calls per head. This gives weight to what urban theorists such as the late Jane Jacobs have long argued: that cities foster the exchange of ideas.
The Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA) at University College London, another research hotbed, uses data from London’s Oyster cards—used to pay for public transport—and Twitter messages. Tube-travel patterns are regular: entering the system at one station tends to mean leaving it at a particular other one. Twitter messages reveal a city’s structure and its activity. London has one centre, near Piccadilly Circus; New York has several, including near Times Square, City Hall and in Brooklyn. Tweeting correlates negatively with greenery, particularly in Central Park.
Some in the field are ambivalent about such research. Practitioners of urban planning don’t quite know what to do with the results—particularly regularities of the sort found by Mr West. Others worry that urban research could, just like other fields of study, start to put number-crunching ahead of other important questions. “A green pixel on a satellite image doesn’t tell you whether it’s a park or a private garden,” argues Philipp Rode, of LSE Cities, a research centre at the London School of Economics.
Still, the deluge of urban data is likely to have a big impact. Some academics such as Michael Batty, the director of CASA, see a real prospect of synthesising these patterns and regularities into a “science of the city”, much like physics or biology. That will be the subject of a conference at the Santa Fe Institute in July.
City planners, too, may have to rethink their work. If cities indeed develop organically along certain lines, pushing them onto another track may be futile. Instead of trying to limit growth, planners should “make room”, says Mr Angel: be realistic when projecting urban land needs, set generous metropolitan limits, protect some open space and provide an arterial grid of roads. This is pretty much what New York did in the early 18th century. It is what some Chinese cities are doing now.
Yet the most immediate impact of urban data will be on how cities are managed. In a second research lab in Singapore, Mr Ratti and his colleagues are developing software to turn cities into what he calls “real-time control systems”. These combine all kinds of data feeds, including information about the location of taxis and rainfall. The city state’s transport system would benefit from being better able to match the demand and supply of taxis, particularly when it rains, which tends to happen suddenly in Singapore.
Such examples raise one question: how will data change cities? To get an idea, look at how racing cars have changed. Mechanics used to do all the fine-tuning on their vehicle before a race. Now they sit in front of big screens, monitoring the data that comes in from the hundreds of sensors attached to the car—and make adjustments in real-time. One day city hall may be as packed with screens as a Formula 1 pit.

2012年6月24日 星期日


這套由成大歷史系王健文教授負責主編的校史包括「南方歲時記:成大八十年編年記事圖錄」,「南方未央歌:戰後半世紀的青春記事」、 「不安於室:成功大學的人文景觀」、「成功的基礎:成大的台南高等工業學校時期」、「頭冷胸寬腳敏:成大早期畢業生與台灣工業化」。


     校園內還有228紀念碑, 二二八事件當中, 這裡的師生也被捲入, 因此校方決定立碑以玆紀念.......

第一節   二二八事件與淡江中學


3月10日,沙崙地區的國軍在獲得台北方面的援兵後,於當早軍隊衝入淡水街 上,殺害不少民眾。常時有位住校學生郭曉鐘正好下山購物,被軍人射殺而曝屍街頭,一直到下午陳能通校長才能下山領回屍體,以便通知其台南的家長。翌日清晨 五點大批武裝軍人到校園採取圍捕行動,他們到校舍強行押走陳能通校長,開槍射傷前來營救校長的理化老師盧園,並在女中前面押走體育老師黃阿統。
盧園,1941年畢業於淡中後,赴日本上田纖維學校深造,二次大戰時曾任皇軍少尉,光復後受陳能通校長之邀而回母校任教,事發之時他正在準備訂婚事宜,不料從此卻天人永隔。黃、盧兩位老師都是當時難得的人才,軍方殺害他們的理由一直未公佈,直到1992年政治禁忌消除後,才知這項所謂的淡中「綏靖」行動,是因他們三人 「煽動學生嚮應台北招致流氓及青年在學校舉辦軍事訓練」,並聲稱對他們「格斃」「正法」純屬「措置有方」,這種無中生有的羅織罪名,大大屈辱了他們三人為 淡中流血殉身的事實。淡水兩校一直到四月才恢復平靜,北部教會特請台北市長游彌堅為三校董事長並兼校長職務,以穩定人心。同時將淡水兩校合併,並因中華民 國法規私校不能使用地方名稱,而改稱淡江中學男子部、淡江中學女子部。同年9月新學期時也將台北的中山女子中學,合併於淡江中學女子部。

2012年6月22日 星期五

Dundee, Inverness


Tibet's spiritual leader Dalai Lama to arrive in Inverness

The Dalai Lama The Dalai Lama is in Inverness following a visit to Edinburgh

Related Stories

Tibet's spiritual leader the Dalai Lama will finish his UK tour in Inverness later.
All 1,300 tickets for his appearance at the city's Eden Court sold out in 24 hours, jamming phones at the theatre in the process.
Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, has already visited Manchester, London, Edinburgh and Dundee.
Nairn Academy pupil Amy McCann, 18, will introduce the Dalai Lama to the stage at Eden Court.
The Dalai Lama, who lives in exile in India, is one of the world's best known religious figures.
Religious groups invited him to visit the UK.
There has been controversy over his tour of Scotland.
In Dundee, the Lord Provost Bob Duncan was accused of cancelling his speech at a specially arranged event on Friday.
The city council said SNP councillor Mr Duncan was not snubbing the Dalai Lama and would speak to the 76-year-old after attending a family funeral.
It emerged earlier this week that the Chinese consul general to Scotland had met with council leaders from all three cities scheduled for the tour.
The issue was raised during first minister's question time in the Scottish Parliament, where opposition parties claimed China had put pressure on the SNP government over the visit.
Deputy First Minister Nicola Sturgeon warned parties not to politicise what was a "pastoral" visit, before saying that no UK government ministers were meeting the Dalai Lama during his trip.

2012年6月14日 星期四


臺灣童謠亦有此異:『月光光,秀才郎;騎白馬,過南唐』:此言鄭延平之起兵也。『頭戴明朝帽,身穿清朝 衣;五月稱永和,六月還康熙』:此言朱一貴之失敗。『出日落雨,刉豬秉肚;尫仔穿紅褲,乞食走無路』:此言乙未九、十月之景象也。揣其所言,若有默示;豈 偶然而合歟?抑天人感應之際現於機微也歟?



乙未戰爭- 维基百科,自由的百科全书

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-hant/乙未戰爭 - Cached - Translate this page
乙未戰爭 或稱乙未之役、乙未日軍征台之役,或稱為台日戰爭。日本稱為台灣討伐或征台之役。是台灣軍民為捍衛「台灣民主國」,而日軍依馬關條約為取得台灣所爆發 ...



永和- 維基百科,自由的百科全書

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/永和 - Cached - Translate this page
永和區位於於台北盆地的中央偏南,北隔新店溪與台北市的萬華區、中正區、文山區相鄰,南則大致以瓦磘溝西段、中和路、安樂路、瓦磘溝東段、自立路2巷、秀朗路3 ...

2012年6月12日 星期二

RIO+20: Dam threatens Kenyan lake

RIO+20: Dam threatens Kenyan lake; Chinese aid under fire

photoA cattle breeder tends to animals at Lake Turkana in northern Kenya. (Tadashi Sugiyama)photoMany people make their living by fishing at Lake Turkana. (Tadashi Sugiyama)
LOIYANGALANI, Kenya -- About a 20-hour drive from Nairobi, zebras graze on the shore of a jade-green lake while the heads of hippos and Nile crocodiles break the surface of the water. Myriad birds sing by the lakeside, and lions can be seen dosing off in the distance.

In 2012 the United Nations will convene the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, also known as Rio 2012 or Rio+20, hosted by Brazil in Rio de Janeiro, as a 20-year follow-up to the historic 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) that was held in the same city. The conference is organized by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
The decision to hold the conference in 2012 in Rio de Janeiro was made by UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/64/236 on 24 December 2009.[1]

2012年6月11日 星期一



消失的生命之河 暴雨將至,台灣處處危機

2010-03 天下雜誌 442期 作者:林倖妃
成功大學地球科學系主任林慶偉指出,南部今年從五月的梅雨季開始,將是很大考驗。因為山坡坡面若植被完整,不太容易破壞。但只要有一 點崩塌,一旦颱風、豪雨來襲,不但殘餘坡面土石易持續下滑,甚至造成新生崩塌擴大,土方往中下游傾洩。而這些崩塌的土方,隨著雨水沖刷,勢必導致更嚴重的 土石流。

從 一九九六年賀伯颱風之後,受到氣候變遷影響的台灣,雨量和災難幅度即不斷創新紀錄。「從歷史上來說,八八水災可以說是近百年以來最大的災難,」莫拉克颱風 重建推動委員會副執行長陳振川說。面對這樣高風險的國土,台灣人以往是用「人定勝天」的拚勁,與自然爭地。一次風災,就造成全台斷裂一三三座橋,單高屏溪 沿岸達五十餘座橋,就是最好的例子。
但 偏偏大樹鄉遲遲等不到疏濬施工的到來。面對著河岸土堆比路面高,憂心忡忡的大樹鄉長曾英志,氣急敗壞地說,去年八月大量泥沙瞬間湧入,堵塞大樹十三條排水 系統,連早期掩埋在高灘地的垃圾場,都鬆動冒出頭來,若不及時疏濬,雨季一來,除垃圾場可能遭沖垮造成污染,西埔村和大坑村更是首當其衝,毫無退路可言。


2012/04/17 傷心海岸,誰殺了沙灘?魚也不見了!











誰殺了沙灘? 圖片來源:劉國泰 十年間,跟大安森林公園一樣大的海岸,消失了。耗費億元也救不回來的海灘,淪陷下沉中的國土,誰扭曲台灣美麗的輪廓?

台灣師範大學地理學系,助理教授林宗儀,用Google Earth沿著台灣愈來愈往內縮短的海岸線(五年內,縮短二十七公里),一公尺、一公尺地對照,指出:保護海岸用的消波塊和水泥堤防,其實是殺手。
黃金海岸 兩年內消失




Kassel 市環保電力- dOCUMENTA (13)

  1. dOCUMENTA (13) - dOCUMENTA (13)

    d13.documenta.de/ - 頁庫存檔 - 翻譯這個網頁
    These four conditions relate to the four locations in which dOCUMENTA (13) is physically and conceptually sited—Kassel, Kabul, Alexandria/Cairo, and Banff.
  2. documenta - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Documenta - 頁庫存檔 - 翻譯這個網頁
    documenta is an exhibition of modern and contemporary art which takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. It was founded by artist, teacher and curator ...
  3. 卡塞尔文献展- 维基百科,自由的百科全书

    zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/卡塞尔文献展 - 頁庫存檔
    卡塞爾文獻展(Kassel Documenta)是世界最著名的藝術展覽之一,在德國城市 ... 展廳(Documenta-Halle)、橘園宮(Orangerie)、賓丁啤酒廠(Binding-Brauerei)等。

    世界規模の現代美術展、独で開幕 愛媛の美術家も参加

     日本からは美術家の大竹伸朗さん(愛媛県宇和島市)が参加する。中心部の公園に、現地で集めた廃棄物などで小屋を設置し、高さ約20メートルの樹木に6 隻のボートを載せた。開幕前の内覧会で多くの鑑賞者を集めた。大竹さんは「昨年3月、東日本大震災の直後に出展を求められた。ここ1年あまりに感じたこと を小屋などの形に組み上げた」と話した。(西岡一正)


相關文章卡塞爾 搜尋結果約 3 個,以下為1-3個
搜尋結果排序方式:相關性 | 日期
2007/06/20 02:50
...維基百科,自由的百科全書 跳转到: 导航, 搜尋 卡塞爾市徽 地圖 基礎數據政治 城市名: 卡塞爾 ...《詳全文

自然 | 2007.10.31



以举办5年一届的文献现代艺术展著称的卡塞尔市又为德国赢得了一项骄傲,在全国的大城市中,卡塞尔成为率先全部使用再生能源生产的电力产品 的大城市。卡塞尔市大约有97000个住户以及注册公司,每年消耗的电能为4亿3千万度。迄今为止,该市主要是从原子能以及火力发电获取电能并供应居民。
对用电居民来说,这一步骤没有带来任何麻烦,也不需要多交电费。卡塞尔市政府希望,有越来越多的城市加入只使用再生能源的行列,这样不仅对环保做出 了贡献,同时,因为购买该类电力的数量增大,供求关系中,供方只能压低电价而对使用者十分有利。目前,卡塞尔市同斯堪的纳维亚水利发电公司签署了为期5年 的购买合同,因为量大以及合同有效期教长,从而形成的价格没有超出现在的水平。

百來尊新兵馬俑 China unearths over 100 new terracotta warriors

The Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum is a UNESCO World Heritage site (AFP/File)

China unearths over 100 new terracotta warriors
BEIJING — Chinese archaeologists have unearthed 110 new terracotta warriors that laid buried for centuries, an official said Monday, part of the famed army built to guard the tomb of China's first emperor.
The life-size figures were excavated near the Qin Emperor's mausoleum in China's northern Xi'an city over the course of three years, and archaeologists also uncovered 12 pottery horses, parts of chariots, weapons and tools.
"The... excavation on the 200-square-metre (2,152-square-feet) site has found a total of 110 terracotta figurines," Shen Maosheng from the Qin Shihuang Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum -- which oversees the tomb -- told AFP.
"The most significant discovery this time around is that the relics that were found were well-preserved and colourfully painted," Shen, deputy head of the museum's archaeology department, said.
He added that archaeologists had pinpointed the location of another 11 warriors but had yet to unearth them.
The discovery is the latest in China's cultural sector, after experts found that the Great Wall of China -- which like the Terracotta Army is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- was much longer than previously thought.
Shen said experts had expected the colours on some of the warriors and wares uncovered at the site to have faded over the centuries, and were surprised to see how well preserved they still were.
The finds also included a shield that was reportedly used by soldiers in the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC), with red, green and white geometric patterns.
Qin Shihuang -- the Qin emperor who had the army built -- presided over the unification of China in 221 BC and is seen as the first emperor of the nation.
The ancient terracotta army was discovered in 1974 by a peasant digging a well. It represents one of the greatest archaeological finds of modern times, and was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1987.
The news comes after a five-year archaeological survey found the Great Wall of China was more than double the previously estimated length.
The survey -- released to the public last week -- found the wall was 21,196 kilometres (13,170 miles) long, compared to an official 2009 figure of 8,851 kilometres.
Beijing authorities on Saturday also reiterated plans to open two new sections of the Great Wall to tourists and expand two other existing areas to help meet booming demand.

 《中英對照讀新聞》Chinese archaeologists unearth 2,400-year-old soup 中國考古學家挖掘出2400年的湯 ◎自由時報 國際新聞中心

The liquid and bones were in a sealed bronze cooking vessel dug up near the ancient capital of Xian - home to the country’s famed terracotta warriors. Tests are being carried out to identify the ingredients. An odourless liquid, believed to be wine, was also found.

The pots were discovered in a tomb being excavated to make way for an extension to the local airport."It’s the first discovery of bone soup in Chinese archaeological history," the newspaper quoted Liu Daiyun of the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology as saying."The discovery will play an important role in studying the eating habits and culture of the Warring States Period(475-221BC)

The scientists said the tomb could have held the body of either a member of the land-owning class or a low-ranking military officer, the report said.報告說,科學家指出,這個墓穴可能埋葬地主階級或是低階將官的屍體。

In 1974, the terracotta army was found there at the burial site of Qin Shihuang, China’s first emperor. He presided over the unification of China in 221BC and ruled until 210BC.1974年,兵馬俑在秦始皇的墓地出土。秦始皇是中國第一位皇帝,在西元前221年統治統一的中國,統治直到西元前210年。

2012年6月5日 星期二

Narita Airport 要什麼 有什麼

photoTasuna Hashimoto, right, helps dress a departing passenger at Narita Airport in Narita, Chiba Prefecture, on April 20 as other members of the women's division of the Narita UNESCO Association look on. (Shigehiro Saito)

NARITA, Chiba Prefecture -- For departing foreign visitors who want to experience Japanese culture one last time, make sure you leave from Narita Airport.

2012年6月4日 星期一

阿姆斯特丹,1972: 流浪者計畫, since 2005

那是林懷民首度的「流浪之旅」,第一站,就飛到了阿姆斯特丹,荷蘭的首都,世界有名的「毒都」。在機場的大看板下,他定住了!那巨幅的 看板提供了各種資訊:「如果你想找住的地方,可以到★★;如果你有性病,可以聯絡★★;如果你有墮胎的問題,可以找★★;如果你吸毒出了問題,可以打★★ 電話。」



www.cloudgate.org.tw/wanderer/index.htm - 頁庫存檔


流浪者」能夠踏出步伐,夢想起飛,衷心感謝企業及朋友的贊助:. 施振 ...


1972年,歐洲。 那是林懷民首度的「流浪之旅」,第一站,就飛到了阿 ...


◎獎助對象 資格一:啟蒙組 1982年1月1日(含)以後出生,具中華民國 ...


2012年第八屆【流浪者計畫】獲選名單. 陳婉寧北京自然之友、低碳家 ...

München, Munich ,慕尼黑、明興、民顕、明星

最近說過,Wikipedia 對於下兩網頁撰寫幫助很大:
我發現20年代湯元吉譯《春醒》1925/28.--台北市.--商務印書館.--60[1971]  .--臺一版,的確採用「明星」,不是其它。


1926年(於德國明星) 的歌德克拉維歌 Clavigo 序言末  湯元吉感謝沈怡(君怡)幫他校過一遍

應該是  München 慕尼黑, 早期翻譯為明星( München 德文發音),  慕尼黑 (Munich) 為英文發音翻的反而不好.



ミュンヘン(標準ドイツ語München, バイエルン語Minga〔ミンガ〕、ミュンヘン方言:Münchn〔ミュンヒン〕は、ドイツ南部の都市で、バイエルン州州都である。ヨーロッパ有数の世界都市
ミュンヘンという名は僧院という意味で、ドイツ語で僧を表す「メンヒ」に由来する。漢字表記は「民顕」。"che" の部分の無声硬口蓋摩擦音 [ç] の音写を表すために、[hə]/[xə] の発音を示す「ヘ」ではなく、[çə] の発音を示す「ヒェ」を用い、「ミュンヒェン」とも表記される。また "" の発音は正確には「ミュ」ではなく、[mʏ] であり、[ʊ] の形に唇を開き、[ɪ] と発音した音に近い。
英語フランス語では Munich(英語:ミューニック[mjú:nik]/仏語:ミュニク[mynik])、イタリア語では Monacoモナコ公国との区別のために、「バイエルンの」という意味の語をつけてMonaco di Baviera, モナコ・ディ・バヴィエラ)と呼ばれる。



 慕尼黑另外的譯名:明興。例子:Universität München(德國明興大學)


 Munich (play /ˈmjuːnɪk/; (German: München, pronounced [ˈmʏnçən] ( listen)[2], Bavarian: Minga) is the capital and the largest city of the German state of Bavaria. It is located on the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, behind Berlin and Hamburg. About 1.42 million people live within the city limits. Munich hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics.


The Deutsches Museum or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is one of the oldest and largest science museums in the world. Three redundant exhibition buildings which are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum, which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum. Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field. Several non-centralised museums (many of those are public collections at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität) show the expanded state collections of palaeontology, geology, mineralogy,[17] zoology, botany and anthropology.
The city has several important art galleries, most of which can be found in the Kunstareal, including the Alte Pinakothek, the Neue Pinakothek, the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst. Alte Pinakothek's monolithic structure contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two sprawling floors. Major displays include Albrecht Dürer's Christ-like Self-Portrait, his Four Apostles, Raphael's paintings The Canigiani Holy Family and Madonna Tempi as well as Peter Paul Rubens two-storey-high Judgment Day. The gallery houses one of the world's most comprehensive Rubens collections. Before World War I, the Blaue Reiter group of artists worked in Munich. Many of their works can now be seen at the Lenbachhaus. An important collection of Greek and Roman art is held in the Glyptothek and the Staatliche Antikensammlung (State Antiquities Collection). King Ludwig I managed to acquire such famous pieces as the Medusa Rondanini, the Barberini Faun and figures from the Temple of Aphaea on Aegina for the Glyptothek. The Kunstareal will be further augmented by the completion of the Egyptian Museum.
The famous gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city.
Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: The State Museum of Ethnology in Maximilianstrasse is the second largest collection in Germany of artifacts and objects from outside Europe, while the Bavarian National Museum and the adjoining Bavarian State Archaeological Collection in Prinzregentenstrasse rank among Europe's major art and cultural history museums. The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th century paintings.
The former Dachau concentration camp is 16 kilometres outside the city.

Arts and literature

Munich is a major European cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso, W.A. Mozart, Carl Maria von Weber, Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Max Reger and Carl Orff. With the Munich Biennale founded by Hans Werner Henze, and the A*DEvantgarde festival, the city still contributes to modern music theatre.
The Nationaltheater where several of Richard Wagner's operas had their premieres under the patronage of Ludwig II of Bavaria is the home of the Bavarian State Opera and the Bavarian State Orchestra. Next door the modern Residenz Theatre was erected in the building that had housed the Cuvilliés Theatre before World War II. Many operas were staged there, including the premiere of Mozart's "Idomeneo" in 1781. The Gärtnerplatz Theatre is a ballet and musical state theatre while another opera house the Prinzregententheater has become the home of the Bavarian Theatre Academy. The modern Gasteig center houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Its primary concert venue is the Herkulesaal in the former city royal residence, the Residenz. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater.

The Golden Friedensengel
Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre (Residenztheater), the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world. Since Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's premieres in 1775 many important writers have staged their plays in Munich such as Christian Friedrich Hebbel, Henrik Ibsen and Hugo von Hofmannsthal.
The city is known as the second largest publishing center in the world (around 250 publishing houses have offices in the city), and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Matchless Magazine, LAXMag and Prinz.
Prominent literary figures worked in Munich especially during the final centuries of the Kingdom of Bavaria such as Paul Heyse, Max Halbe, Rainer Maria Rilke and Frank Wedekind. The period immediately before World War I saw economic and cultural prominence for the city. Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing, became the domicile of many artists and writers. Thomas Mann, who also lived there, wrote ironically in his novella Gladius Dei about this period, "Munich shone". It remained a centre of cultural life during the Weimar period with figures such as Lion Feuchtwanger, Bertolt Brecht and Oskar Maria Graf. In 1919 the Bavaria Film Studios were founded.
From the Gothic to the Baroque era, the fine arts were represented in Munich by artists like Erasmus Grasser, Jan Polack, Johann Baptist Straub, Ignaz Günther, Hans Krumpper, Ludwig von Schwanthaler, Cosmas Damian Asam, Egid Quirin Asam, Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Johann Michael Fischer and François de Cuvilliés. Munich had already become an important place for painters like Carl Rottmann, Lovis Corinth, Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Carl Spitzweg, Franz von Lenbach, Franz von Stuck and Wilhelm Leibl when Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a group of expressionist artists, was established in Munich in 1911. The city was home to the Blue Rider's painters Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Gabriele Münter, Franz Marc, August Macke and Alfred Kubin.

2012年6月1日 星期五

Guangdong : An integrated southern China services hub?

Asia business: An integrated southern China services hub?
May 28th 2012

When the reform and opening-up period launched in the early 1980s, Guangdong became the epicentre of the manufacturing boom that led China to become the export powerhouse that it is today. The province is now at the centre of the next wave of reforms aimed at rebalancing the economy away from manufacturing and towards services. Hong Kong's proximity to Guangdong means that it will play a central role in this shift, while nearby Macau will benefit too.
Local planners eye the emergence of an advanced economy spanning services and manufacturing, with Hong Kong's financial prowess at its heart. Business links are already very strong, especially in manufacturing, and services links are strengthening as well. An array of special zones has been set up, with the aim of allowing Hong Kong's financial and logistics services to spill over into dedicated areas of Guangdong. Such developments will help Guangdong in its quest to become an advanced manufacturing and services economy, but its ultimate success will depend on its ability to overcome shortcomings in labour resources.

Services liberalisation
Guangdong is the largest provincial economy in China, with GDP in 2011 of Rmb5.3trn (US$835bn at the current exchange rate). The province's rise has been achieved on the back of manufacturing investment from Hong Kong. In the period 1979-2010 Hong Kong companies invested US$155.9bn in Guangdong, a figure that amounted to 61.5% of the total foreign direct investment received by the province.
However, it has become increasingly evident that the comparative advantages that turned Guangdong into a low-cost manufacturing hub are gradually disappearing. The province's wealth has driven up local prices, encouraging investors to relocate capacity to inland China, where land and labour costs are cheaper. The migrant workers who previously flocked to cities such as Shenzhen, Dongguan and Foshan are increasingly finding work closer to home, squeezing labour supply and applying further upward pressure on wages. The sluggishness of global trade in recent years has also weakened Guangdong's position; the province achieved real GDP growth of 10% in 2011, far below the rates achieved prior to 2008-09. Guangdong remains China's biggest exporter, but it is coming under growing pressures to implement structural reforms in its economy.
The provincial authorities have long been aware of such weaknesses, and already have in train various plans aimed at diversifying the local economy away from exports, many of which are focused around co-operation with Hong Kong. Integrating services with its neighbour is a current priority. While much of Hong Kong's investment in Guangdong has been related to manufacturing, recent rounds of negotiations under the Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) between Hong Kong and China have created new opportunities for services. Under the latest agreement, which came into force on April 1st, Hong Kong insurance companies are permitted to open wholly owned insurance agencies in Guangdong. Under earlier agreements, Hong Kong companies are permitted to set up wholly owned hospitals and clinics as well. By late 2011, some 12 Hong Kong-invested clinics had been established. Guangdong is often used as a pilot zone for liberalisation measures announced under CEPA.
Another example of healthcare integration is the opening of the Shenzhen Binhai Hospital, also known as the University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Hospital, this year. Arrangements for mutual recognition of the qualifications of services professionals will also underpin services development and integration across the region. Integration is still in its early stages—some Hong Kong professionals have claimed that in practice it is still difficult to qualify to work in Guangdong: only a handful of doctors have managed to gain the appropriate licensing.
Such problems might be ironed out eventually, as the Chinese vice-premier, Li Keqiang, has indicated that China's services market will be fully opened to Hong Kong by 2017. It is likely that services companies expanding onto the mainland will first dip their toes in Guangdong as a geographically and culturally more familiar region, leading to greater services integration across the Pearl River Delta economy as whole.

New zones
Three new special zones in Guangdong are being established to support services integration across the region. The new zones are very much incipient. But they are well-located, close to world markets, and benefit from a unique range of preferential policies. Each of the new zones gives a high priority to services investment, pointing to Guangdong's likely emergence as an advanced economy over the next decade or two.
The Qianhai zone is situated within Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, and has been designated for the development of financial services, logistical services, technology and information services—in other words, the types of services in which Hong Kong is already strong. The idea is to create a spillover region in Shenzhen where Hong Kong service providers can expand across the border. Qianhai's development will be boosted by recent press reports that Hong Kong banks will be permitted to make direct loans within the zone, and Hong Kong companies will be able to get renminbi-denominated loans from Chinese banks in the area.

The details have yet to be fleshed out, but this indicates that Qianhai may play a role in piloting the gradual opening of China's capital account. Investment in Qianhai will be encouraged by regulations allowing Hong Kong and overseas professionals working within the zone to pay Hong Kong's low rates of income tax, rather than China's much higher marginal rates.
Another new zone is Hengqin, directly adjacent to Macau, which will allow Macau's gaming, tourism and leisure industries to expand into the much more spacious territory of Hengqin Island. The University of Macau is also opening a campus on Hengqin, accessible only from the Macau side. Hong Kong and Macau residents are also being offered Hong Kong/Macau rates of tax, and corporations setting up on Hengqin will pay a preferential 15% rate of tax, rather than the more generally applicable 25% rate. Hengqin, which is much larger than Qianhai, will also be a special customs zone, where goods imported for processing on Hengqin are exempt from import duty, as long as those goods are not shipped elsewhere in China. The zone remains tiny. Hengqin New Area was set up in 2009 with a population of only 3,000, although government plans have outlined ambitious hopes that Hengqin could be a thriving city of 280,000 by 2020.
Finally, the Nansha New Area has been set up on a spur of land very central to the Pearl River, lying between Macau and Shenzhen. The area is connected by express ferry to Hong Kong, and will focus on high-end services, as well as port services, tourism, leisure and advanced manufacturing. Preferential policies once again include a 15% tax rate as well as tax incentives for Hong Kong professionals working in the zone and matching funding for technology projects. The encouragement of high-end manufacturing represents an attempt by Guangdong province to move up the value chain and away from labour-intensive investments, which are increasingly moving to cheaper locales elsewhere in China.

New links
The strengthening of transport and communications links between the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Guangdong will facilitate further integration, while allowing Hong Kong to maintain its entrepôt role. Such plans include the ongoing construction of the three-way Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge, which should be open to traffic in 2016. An express railway from Hong Kong to Guangzhou via Shenzhen is also under construction, for completion in 2015. This will not only shorten journey times from Hong Kong to Guangzhou to 48 minutes, but will also connect Hong Kong up with China's national network of high-speed railways. The existing inter-city rail link between Guangzhou and Zhuhai is also to be extended to Macau. Other plans that may be implemented include a rail link between the Hong Kong and Shenzhen airports.

An integrated regional economy?
Guangdong, given its strong links to the global economy, will find it easier than most other parts of the country to move up the value chain. Nevertheless, it must solve a number of daunting challenges if it is to do so. The population is starting to age, which will become increasingly apparent as inflows of young migrant workers slow. It also lacks the high-quality personnel required to sustain an advanced economy because educational services are insufficiently developed. This means Guangdong will not have the workers needed to meet demand in some sectors prioritised by the government, such as pharmaceuticals and renewable energy. For such reasons, the type of services in which Hong Kong has long specialised—from financial services to healthcare—can serve a useful purpose.

The growing transport links across the Pearl River Delta also point to growing regional integration, facilitating movements of goods and services in the region. The provincial government hopes that such developments will enable Guangdong to eventually emerge as a world-class advanced manufacturing-services hub. Hong Kong will play an important role in this transition, but its success will also rest on how Guangdong confronts more fundamental questions about its political economy, such as those relating to demography and education.

Economist Intelligence Unit
Source: Economist Intelligence Unit
©The Economist Newspaper Limited 2012


2012-06 Web only 作者:吳凱琳
廣 東設立了三個特區以支持服務業整合及價值鏈升級;這些地區尚在起步階段,但地點良好、鄰近全球市場,也有各項政策性優惠。強化香港與廣東間的交通與通訊連 結,將使讓整合更進一步,並維持香港的中心地位;這些計畫包括港珠澳大橋、廣深港高鐵等。廣深港高鐵通車後,不但可以縮短車程,也讓香港得以連結中國的高 速鐵路網。
廣東與全球經濟的連結緊密,朝價值鏈上方移動也會比其他地區容易,但廣東還是得先通過一系列重大挑戰,例如人口老化、高品質人才 不足等。珠江三角洲區域整合將帶動貨品和服務流通,當地政府也希望這樣的發展可以讓廣東成為世界級的先進製造樞鈕;香港會扮演重要角色,但廣東能否解決人 口、教育等問題,亦是成敗的重要關鍵。(黃維德譯)