2015年10月31日 星期六

NASA Adds to Evidence of Mysterious Ancient Earthworks

One of the enormous earthwork configurations photographed from space is known as the Ushtogaysky Square, named after the nearest village in Kazakhstan. CreditDigitalGlobe, via NASA
High in the skies over Kazakhstan, space-age technology has revealed an ancient mystery on the ground.
Satellite pictures of a remote and treeless northern steppe reveal colossal earthworks — geometric figures of squares, crosses, lines and rings the size of several football fields, recognizable only from the air and the oldest estimated at 8,000 years old.
The largest, near a Neolithic settlement, is a giant square of 101 raised mounds, its opposite corners connected by a diagonal cross, covering more terrain than the Great Pyramid of Cheops. Another is a kind of three-limbed swastika, its arms ending in zigzags bent counterclockwise.
Described last year at an archaeology conference in Istanbul as unique and previously unstudied, the earthworks, in the Turgai region of northern Kazakhstan, number at least 260 — mounds, trenches and ramparts — arrayed in five basic shapes.
Spotted on Google Earth in 2007 by a Kazakh economist and archaeology enthusiast, Dmitriy Dey, the so-called Steppe Geoglyphs remain deeply puzzling and largely unknown to the outside world.
The Bestamskoe Ring is among the so-called Steppe Geoglyphs in Kazakhstan — at least 260 earthwork shapes made up of mounds, trenches and ramparts, the oldest estimated at 8,000 years old, recognizable only from the air. CreditDigitalGlobe, via NASA
Two weeks ago, in the biggest sign so far of official interest in investigating the sites, NASA released clear satellite photographs of some of the figures from about 430 miles up.
“I’ve never seen anything like this; I found it remarkable,” said Compton J. Tucker, a senior biospheric scientist for NASA in Washington who provided the archived images, taken by the satellite contractor DigitalGlobe, to Mr. Dey and The New York Times.
Ronald E. LaPorte, a University of Pittsburgh scientist who helped publicize the finds, called NASA’s involvement “hugely important” in mobilizing support for further research.
This week, NASA put space photography of the region on a task list for astronauts in the International Space Station. “It may take some time for the crew to take imagery of your site since we are under the mercy of sun elevation angles, weather constraints and crew schedule,” Melissa Higgins of Mission Operations emailed Dr. LaPorte.
The archived images from NASA add to the extensive research that Mr. Dey compiled this year in a PowerPoint lecture translated from Russian to English.
“I don’t think they were meant to be seen from the air,” Mr. Dey, 44, said in an interview from his hometown, Kostanay, dismissing outlandish speculations involving aliens and Nazis. (Long before Hitler, the swastika was an ancient and near-universal design element.) He theorizes that the figures built along straight lines on elevations were “horizontal observatories to track the movements of the rising sun.”
Kazakhstan, a vast, oil-rich former Soviet republic that shares a border with China, has moved slowly to investigate and protect the finds, scientists say, generating few news reports.
“I was worried this was a hoax,” said Dr. LaPorte, an emeritus professor of epidemiology at Pittsburgh who noticed a report on the finds last year while researching diseases in Kazakhstan.
With the help of James Jubilee, a former American arms control officer and now a senior science and technology coordinator for health issues in Kazakhstan, Dr. LaPorte tracked down Mr. Dey through the State Department, and his images and documentation quickly convinced them of the earthworks’ authenticity and importance. They sought photos from KazCosmos, the country’s space agency, and pressed local authorities to seek urgent Unesco protection for the sites — so far without luck.
The earthworks, including the Turgai Swastika, were spotted on Google Earth in 2007 by Dmitriy Dey, a Kazakh archaeology enthusiast. CreditDigitalGlobe, via NASA
In the Cretaceous Period 100 million years ago, Turgai was bisected by a strait from what is now the Mediterranean to the Arctic Ocean. The rich lands of the steppe were a destination for Stone Age tribes seeking hunting grounds, and Mr. Dey’s research suggests that the Mahandzhar culture, which flourished there from 7,000 B.C. to 5,000 B.C., could be linked to the older figures. But scientists marvel that a nomadic population would have stayed in place for the time required to fell and lay timber for ramparts, and to dig out lake bed sediments to construct the huge mounds, originally 6 to 10 feet high and now 3 feet high and nearly 40 feet across.
Persis B. Clarkson, an archaeologist at the University of Winnipeg who viewed some of Mr. Dey’s images, said these figures and similar ones in Peru and Chile were changing views about early nomads.
“The idea that foragers could amass the numbers of people necessary to undertake large-scale projects — like creating the Kazakhstan geoglyphs — has caused archaeologists to deeply rethink the nature and timing of sophisticated large-scale human organization as one that predates settled and civilized societies,” Dr. Clarkson wrote in an email.
“Enormous efforts” went into the structures, agreed Giedre Motuzaite Matuzeviciute, an archaeologist from Cambridge University and a lecturer at Vilnius University in Lithuania, who visited two of the sites last year. She said by email that she was dubious about calling the structures geoglyphs — a term applied to the enigmatic Nazca Lines in Peru that depict animals and plants — because geoglyphs “define art rather than objects with function.”
Dr. Matuzeviciute and two archaeologists from Kostanay University, Andrey Logvin and Irina Shevnina, discussed the figures at a meeting of European archaeologists in Istanbul last year.
With no genetic material to analyze — neither of the two mounds that have been dug into is a burial site — Dr. Matuzeviciute said she used optically stimulated luminescence, a method of measuring doses from ionizing radiation, to analyze the construction material, and came up with a date from one of the mounds of around 800 B.C. Other preliminary studies push the earliest date back more than 8,000 years, which could make them the oldest such creations ever found. Other materials yield dates in the Middle Ages.
Mr. Dey said some of the figures might have been solar observatories akin, according to some theories, to Stonehenge in England and theChankillo towers in Peru.
“Everything is linked through the cult of the sun,” said Mr. Dey, who spoke in Russian via Skype through an interpreter, Shalkar Adambekov, a doctoral student at the University of Pittsburgh.
The discovery was happenstance.
Researchers are hoping to marshal support for investigating the earthen mounds that make up figures like this one, the Big Ashutastinsky Cross. CreditDigitalGlobe, via NASA
In March 2007, Mr. Dey was at home watching a program, “Pyramids, Mummies and Tombs,” on the Discovery Channel. “There are pyramids all over the earth,” he recalled thinking. “In Kazakhstan, there should be pyramids, too.”
Soon, he was searching Google Earth images of Kostanay and environs.
There were no pyramids. But, he said, about 200 miles to the south he saw something as intriguing — a giant square, more than 900 feet on each side, made up of dots, crisscrossed by a dotted X.
At first Mr. Dey thought it might be a leftover Soviet installation, perhaps one of Nikita S. Khrushchev’s experiments to cultivate virgin land for bread production. But the next day, Mr. Dey saw a second gigantic figure, the three-legged, swastikalike form with curlicue tips, about 300 feet in diameter.
Before the year was out, Mr. Dey had found eight more squares, circles and crosses. By 2012, there were 19. Now his log lists 260, including some odd mounds with two drooping lines called “whiskers” or “mustaches.”
Before setting out to look for the figures on the ground, Mr. Dey asked Kazakh archaeologists whether they knew of such things. The answer was no. In August 2007, he led Dr. Logvin and others to the largest figure, now called the Ushtogaysky Square, named after the nearest village.
“It was very, very hard to understand from the ground,” he recalled. “The lines are going to the horizon. You can’t figure out what the figure is.”
When they dug into one of the mounds, they found nothing. “It was not a cenotaph, where there are belongings,” he said. But nearby they found artifacts of a Neolithic settlement 6,000 to 10,000 years old, including spear points.
Now, Mr. Dey said, “the plan is to construct a base for operations.”
“We cannot dig up all the mounds. That would be counterproductive,” he said. “We need modern technologies, like they have in the West.”
Dr. LaPorte said he, Mr. Dey and their colleagues were also looking into using drones, as the Culture Ministry in Peru has been doing to map and protect ancient sites.
But time is an enemy, Mr. Dey said. One figure, called the Koga Cross, was substantially destroyed by road builders this year. And that, he said, “was after we notified officials.”

2015年10月30日 星期五



Hamburg Wilhelmsburg Erstaufnahmestelle für Flüchtlinge Zelte
Deutschland Kreuzfahrtsschiffe in Dortmund
Deutschland Flüchtlinge Sportplatz in Düsseldorf
Deutschland Flüchtlinge Kirche in Oberhausen
Deutschland Flüchtlinge Kirche in Oberhausen
德國"萊茵郵報在線"(RP Online)則報導稱,許多聯邦州正設法解決難民過冬的問題。漢堡目前有2850名難民生活在沒有暖氣的帳篷中,未來他們將被轉移至供暖的建築物,或軍方使用的特殊帳篷中。多個聯邦州也正著手為難民收容所裝設暖氣,或將安排難民至附設暖氣的建築物和帳篷中。但包括不來梅在內的一些地方,不排除還是得有部分難民在沒有暖氣的帳篷營地中度過即將到來的冬天。
  • 日期 30.10.2015
  • 作者 張筠青(德新社、WDR)

台中火車站的老照片~李欽賢 火車 火車站 。 台鐵127歲

台中車站 Taichu Station
1923年(大正12年)4月19日 14:40 裕仁皇太子抵達 台中驛
Hirohito, the Crown Prince, arrived at Taichu Station at 14:40, April 19, 1923 (Taisho 12)

劉克襄新增了 1 張相片

感謝團友 Rita Yang 分享一張台灣日本時代第一代台中火車站的老照片~





 S.J Hong 分享一張1937臺中車站前帝國運輸株式會社老照片。






 台湾では、1891年に基隆-台北間の28.6キロメートルを結ぶ鉄道が同島で初めて開業した6月9日を「鉄道の日」とされている。前日の8日には花蓮駅で、動態保存されている「84歳の蒸気機関車」が、鉄道ファンらが乗る客車4両を牽引(けんいん)して走行。元気な姿を披露した。同機関車は1930年に日本の日立製作所で製造された。退役してから30年以上だが、現地鉄道マンの熱意が見事に花開いた。東森新聞などが報じた。  走行したのはLDK59機関車。日本統治時代の台湾総督府鉄道が、台湾東部の花蓮駅と台中駅を結ぶ狭軌鉄道の台東線で運行するために導入したタンク式蒸気機関車LDK50型の1台だ。LDK50型蒸気機関車の導入は1915年。最初の3台は米国から輸入したが、残りは日本の汽車製造(後に川崎重工業が吸収)、日立製作所、日本車両製造が改良しながら作りつづけた。最後の1台が投入されたのが1938年と長期に渡って製造されつづけたモデルだ。  台東線には1969年にディーゼル機関車が導入されたが、LDK59は地元の重要な作物であるサトウキビの収穫期などに活躍し続けた。退役は1982年。それまで762ミリメートル軌間(レールとレールの幅)台東線が1067ミリメートル軌間に改められたため、「引退のやむなき」にいたった。LDK59はそれまで、50年以上「働き続けた」ことになる。  現役を退いてからも、現地の鉄道関係者6人が心を込めて点検と補修を続けた。蒸気機関車などは展示用などに保存していても、手入れを続けなければ「2度と運転できなく」なってしまう。現地関係者の熱意が「30年以上にわたる(運転可能な)動態保存の継続」につながった。  8日の走行では、客車4両を牽引した。「無料乗車体験」には鉄道ファンら180人が招かれた。4両のうち1両は「総ヒノキづくりの車両」で、乗客はうっすらとしたヒノキの香りを楽しむことができたという。  花蓮駅は同日、「廃止された駅の厚紙切符の発売」、「電気式閉塞器の操作体験」、「駅弁販売会」なども実施した。多くの人が、蒸気機関車が活躍した「古きよき台湾鉄道」に思いを馳せた。

  • 台鐵127週年復古蒸汽火車開放搭乘 - 影音首頁 - 中時電子報


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    1 day ago - 中天新聞》為了慶祝台鐵127週年,復古蒸汽火車CT273開放搭乘,9日上午開進彰化車站,讓許多鐵道迷相當興奮。
  • (圖) 【苗栗‧ 田野普悠瑪-台鐵127週年】苗栗田園美景像一幅畫…


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    4 hours ago - 【苗栗‧ 田野普悠瑪-台鐵127週年】. 苗栗田園美景像一幅畫馳騁再田野間的普悠瑪是不是好想出去玩阿~XD. 今年台鐵127週年推出!! LUCKY 7臺鐵七 ...
  • 台鐵127歲生日CT273重出江湖車體流線封機關車女王千張票 ...


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    1 day ago - 為了慶祝台鐵127歲生日,有71年歷史、號稱機關車女王的CT273老蒸汽火車頭修復後,首度從扇形車庫開出,展開彰化到二水的首航,大批火車迷前 ...

  • 1974年10月台中車站前的牌樓

    台鐵花蓮站慶營運127年 重啟84歲蒸氣火車讓民眾搶搭


    原文網址: 台鐵花蓮站慶營運127年 重啟84歲蒸氣火車讓民眾搶搭 | ETtoday地方新聞 | 
    ********** ◆解説◆  台湾では清国統治時代に、鉄道総延長を100キロメートル以上に伸ばしていた。しかし、軍用面が目的で産業の育成にはほとんど関係なく、工事の「品質面」にも大きな問題があったとされる。  1895年に台湾統治を始めた日本は、台湾経営のために鉄道整備が不可欠と考え、1900年までには鉄道建設を本格化させ、民間の輸送にも開放していった。自動車輸送が実用化していなかった当時、陸上の大量輸送を担うのは鉄道しかなかった。  台湾総督府は1908には台湾を南北に貫く基隆-高雄間の約400キロメートルを全線開通させた。また、狭軌である軽便鉄道規格の台東線や阿里山森林鉄路なども敷設した。  台湾には、日本による統治が始まるまで、人が歩く道路も、よく整備されていない地域が多かった。そのような状況下で、日本は比較的低予算で建設できる軽便鉄道のネットワークを盛んに建設し、人の往来と産業の発展に役立てた。軽便鉄道路線の大部分は廃止されたが、台湾で運行する長距離バスの多くは、かつての軽便鉄道の路線を踏襲している。(編集担当:如月隼人)
    李欽賢 和太太謝秋霞合作的3本火車圖畫書:《在集集下車》、《火車載我去看海》和《長著眼睛的火車站》。




    李欽賢 火車站風情「畫」(11/15)












    台灣原味車站寫生畫 李欽賢創作個展

    【TraNews 記者 廖祐笙 / 全球報導】
    台灣原味車站寫生畫 李欽賢創作個展