《碧山》是一系列试图寻找重返我们传统家园之路的MOOK杂志书，试图以现代人的视角重新梳理传统文化在中国人的生产和生活中的位置，并以此为源头探讨展 开传承与创新行动的可能。“碧山”在我们看来已经不仅是一个地理名称，更是我们传统家园和心灵原乡的象征。《碧山01：东亚的书院》《碧山02：去国还 乡》《碧山03：去国还乡 续》。
Yi County, Anhui
Yi County or Yixian is a county in Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of Huangshan City. It has a population of 100,000 and an area of 847 square kilometres. The government of Yi County is located in Biyang Town. Wikipedia
Historical Value: A Chinese Town Appraises Its Past
March 06, 2014
Courtesy of ChinaFile
The once-grand entrance of the Mingxian Hall is locked and hidden behind splintered boards and overgrown greenery. Wang Shouchang, a sixty-seven-year-old farmer from Bishan village, leads us into the cramped kitchen of the farmhouse next door and heads through a passageway on the far wall. What stands before us is breathtaking: a soaring space whose ruined grandeur is only made more compelling by the way it has been packed to the rafters with the humblest of everyday junk. Built in the late-Qing dynasty by the Wang family as a place to venerate a relative who served as a high-ranking civil official in the imperial court, since the 1980s the Mingxian Hall has been a makeshift communal storage space, littered with cast-off toys, aged farming equipment, and pre-ordered coffins which compete for space with a pair of pigs and a flock of boisterous chickens.
曾經雄偉壯觀的名賢堂現已大門緊鎖，隱蔽 在破碎木板和雜草當中。碧山村的67歲農民汪壽昌，帶着我們來到隔壁農家狹窄的廚房，穿過房間另一頭的一個通道。眼前是一片令人震驚的景象：高聳的空間 里，無比粗陋的日常雜物堆積如山，已經到了屋頂，令整座廢墟愈發顯得壯觀。汪家在晚清時期建造了這座建築，用以敬奉一位在朝廷擔任高等文官的親屬。自20 世紀80年代以來，名賢堂被當做臨時公共存儲空間，裡面堆滿了廢棄玩具、舊農具和預定的棺材，還有兩頭豬和一群吵鬧的雞。
Bishan, in the historic Huizhou region of Anhui province, once boasted thirty-six such Wang family halls. Today, two centuries and a revolution removed from its most flourishing period, only three halls remain. As China’s economy soars, an exodus from the countryside into nearby towns and cities hastens Huizhou’s detachment from its past.
Nearby villages better endowed with historic architecture were granted UNESCO world heritage status in 2000 and have been overrun with tourists and film crews ever since. Their success puts also-ran villages in the region, like Bishan, at once closer and further away from the fruits of China’s new prosperity. Tourists—at least the fast-moving tour-bus variety—can visit only so many places in a day.
由於擁有更多歷史建築，附近的幾個村子在 2000年獲得了聯合國教科文組織(Unesco)世界文化遺產的稱號，此後，這些地方迎來了大批遊客和電影攝製組。它們的成功讓該地區落選的其他村子與 中國新的繁榮更近，同時也更加遠了，這其中就包括碧山村。遊客一天能參觀的地方是有限的，至少對那些乘着大巴匆匆而過的遊客來說是如此。
But Bishan’s relative lack of touristically exploitable cultural heritage has recently given it a different kind of allure and possibly, a second chance at escaping obscurity.Ou Ning and Zuo Jing, two urban cultural figures, have settled in Bishan and are attempting to revitalize its economy and cultural heritage without resorting to mass tourism. Their Bishan Project, which we have been documenting for the past year, has brought more rarified forms of development—an arts festival, high-end rustic-chic guesthouses, and a branch of the Nanjing bookstore Librarie Avant Garde—to Bishan, all in an effort to explore routes to economic revitalization that don’t involve industrialization or mass tourism.
但最近，碧山村相對缺乏可供旅遊開發的文 化遺產的狀況，卻讓它有了別樣的吸引力，或許還帶來了第二次擺脫默默無聞狀態的機會。城市文化名人歐寧和左靖在碧山村住了下來，他們打算在不依靠大眾旅遊 業的條件下，重振碧山的經濟和文化遺產。我們過去一年一直在記錄他們的「碧山計劃」。該計劃引入了更罕見的開發模式，把一個藝術節、幾家高端雅緻的鄉村客 棧，以及南京先鋒書店的一個分店帶到了碧山，這一切都是為了探索在不發展工業和旅遊業的前提下如何重振經濟。
Unlike most villagers, Wang Shouchang maintains a deep connection to Bishan’s illustrious past. He devotes much of his private time to researching the kinship history of the region. Scenes he has drawn of Bishan and its surrounding mountains cover the walls of his home. When we visit his house, he unfurls a hand-drawn historical map of Bishan that shows the village before the ravages of the Taiping Rebellion and the Cultural Revolution stripped it of its most distinctive features. He has signed it, “Wang Shouchang, Wang Family Ninety-third Generation.” Wang knows that even if Mingxian Hall were fully restored, no one would use it for worship—the village’s traditions have crumbled faster than its buildings. But, a combination of local and family pride and dismay at the idea of letting the town’s rich “cultural deposits” go unmined has Wang hoping tourism will grow.
與大多數村民不同，汪壽昌的生活仍然與碧 山燦爛的歷史緊密相連。他大部分的私人時間都花在了研究該地區的族系歷史上。他家的牆上掛滿了他畫的碧山村和附近山脈的風景畫。我們到他家拜訪的時候，他 展開了一張手繪的碧山歷史地圖，圖中展示了該在太平天國和文革之前的面貌。這兩次事件毀掉了碧山的一些最有特色的東西。他在地圖上籤了名：「汪壽昌，汪家 第93代。」汪壽昌知道，即使是名賢堂被徹底修復，也沒有人會用它來祭祀——在這個村子，傳統坍塌的速度比建築更快。不過，由於對家鄉和家族充滿自豪，加 上對這裡豐富「文化積澱」被埋沒的沮喪，汪壽昌希望旅遊業能發展起來。
If that happens, Mingxian Hall will likely get a facelift, so that busloads of visitors can bask in the artificial glow of its imperial glory days. If Bishan’s urban immigrants repurpose it, perhaps it will take the village in a new direction. But so far, the hall remains in shambles—with its grandeur and the hardships it has weathered in plain view.
如果這樣的話，名賢堂很可能被翻新，這樣 大量遊客就可以感受到昔日帝王時代的輝煌，只不過是人工營造出來的。如果碧山村的城市移民把名賢堂改作他用，也許將會把這個村子帶向新的方向。但是迄今為 止，這座祠堂仍然是一片廢墟——它的宏大和它所經歷的興衰都一覽無遺地暴露視野之中。
Copyright © 2013 The New York Times Company. All rights reserved.