2015年2月25日 星期三

Detroit 底特律破產。五金大劫掠 / A Humanist’s Look at the Motor City /

Motown has always had scrap-metal dealers—the car industry bends a lot of metal. The business grew frenetic after the economic crisis hit: tens of thousands of homes and factories were made derelict by foreclosure just as global metal prices soared. Many jobless Detroiters made a living by raiding empty buildings for copper wiring or stainless steel fittings. This has not been good for the city http://econ.st/1FO1ILr
“If I get kicked out of here, I might end up homeless, and I’ve been homeless before,” said 78-year-old David Shea who faces eviction after renting a spare room in his apartment through Roomorama.com.

For a city as indebted as Detroit it may seem surprising that a judge would have to decide whether it is eligible for bankruptcy. Nonetheless this is what Judge Stephen Rhodes has been obliged to consider since the city filed for Chapter 9 protection in July. On December 3rd he decided that Detroit was insolvent and could move ahead with its bankruptcy filing http://econ.st/189nJFg


Detroit’s Fight to Survive: A Humanist’s Look at the Motor City

Dave Jordano
A Neighborhood Group Playing in the Street, North Corktown, Detroit, 2012

The temperature hit 103 degrees on this July day, forcing many neighborhood residents to open up fire hydrants to relieve themselves from the sweltering heat.
Click here to find out more!
To illustrate this week’s cover story on the city of Detroit’s fight to survive, TIME turned to the work of photographer Dave Jordano. A second-generation Detroit native living in Chicago, Jordano returned to his home city three years ago with a mission: not to photograph what’s been destroyed, but to record what’s been left behind and the lives of those coping with it. The photographer spoke with LightBox producer Vaughn Wallace on Tuesday; their conversation has been condensed and edited below.
I’m from Detroit originally. I was born there in 1948 and then grew up in Royal Oak, a suburb of the city. At one time my father was an auto-worker in the Packard Automotive Plant, and after they went out of business, he went to work for GM. I studied photography at the Center for Creative Studies, which is an art school in downtown Detroit.
In 2010, I started seeing all these books about the abandonment and ruination of the city. They were all so empty! I thought, God, this is such a lopsided point of view. The whole idea of what’s come to be known as ruin porn is fascinating and sensual, but it masks the real problem of what’s happening in Detroit. Because the pictures are so beautiful and captivating, it’s easy to overlook their real meaning.
I was disturbed by that. While living in Chicago for 30 years, I never went back to Detroit. I never experienced the slow progression, degradation and emptying of the city firsthand. It never occurred to me this was happening until I got the idea to go back and re-photograph the same scenes and architecture I shot as a student in the 1970s.
The cover of the August 5, 2013 issue of TIME, featuring a photo by Dave Jordano.
I had all these negatives with the addresses written down on the sleeves — I knew exactly where they were. So for a week and a half, I completed an entire re-photography project. I had reacquainted myself with the city and was shocked at what I saw. I was drawn in and immediately started shooting the same subject matter as my predecessors, but then I realized that I was contributing nothing to the story of the city.
I asked myself: what can I contribute to Detroit that’s different? What angle can I take that’s more humanistic, more compassionate, than what all these people are coming here to do? I began thinking about the neighborhoods: what about the people who still live here? How are they coping?
So I switched directions.
I started driving around random neighborhoods and just hanging out. I said, I’m going to make this about the people that still live here and my encounters with the folks I meet. And as the project progresses, I’ve gone back and visited the same people and become better friends with them. I’ve returned over and over, trying to get even closer into their lives and homes and backyards. I want to create a more personal way of looking at the people of Detroit — to put a face on the city that I felt was sort of overlooked.
I’ve made over 20 trips to Detroit in the last three years, staying 10-14 days on each trip. But every time I go back, I’m still not used to the way the city looks. I can’t get it out of my head. I wish everyone in the country could tour Detroit and see what’s happened there.
It’s tragic that everyone has turned their back on the city. But I see perseverance and pride. The people I’ve met make do with what they’ve got. For me, when I see people living the way they do, I’m blown away by their positive attitude. Detroit’s a city people shouldn’t write off.

Read more: http://lightbox.time.com/2013/07/25/detroits-fight-to-survive-a-humanists-look-at-the-motor-city/#ixzz2aCaKHnwW

NoViolet Bulawayo

'We Need New Names'

A Zimbabwean moves to Detroit in NoViolet Bulawayo's novel.


底特律英語Detroit)是美國密西根州最大的城市,也是韋恩縣的縣治所在。1701年法國毛皮商建立,是位於美國中西部加拿大溫莎以北、底特律河沿岸的一座重要的港口城市、世界傳統汽車中心和音樂之都。城市得名於連接聖克萊爾湖伊利湖的底特律河,它源自法語Rivière du Détroit」,意為「海峽之河(River of the Strait)」。



Fabrizio Costantini for The New York Times
  • 檢視大圖 6月,被派去解決底特律財政問題的緊急財務管理人凱文·D·奧爾。
    Stephen McGee for The New York Times
  • 檢視大圖 一個廢棄的消防栓。市政服務此前遭到削減,人們擔心申請破產將伴隨更多削減。
    Fabrizio Costantini for The New York Times
「這是艱難的一步,但也是解決一個醞釀了六十年的問題的唯一可行方案,」州長里克·斯奈德(Rick Snyder)說。在他派去解決底特律財政困境的緊急財務主管提出建議之後,他批准了這一舉措。
關於底特律的欠債數額,眾人意見不一。不過,前述緊急財務主管凱文·D·奧爾(Kevyn D. Orr)表示債務金額可能為180億美元(約1100億元人民幣),或許高達200億美元。
從這裡,人們看不到底特律復蘇的路線圖,尤其因為城市破產 的情況很少見。州官員稱,日常城市活動將一如既往地繼續,市領導則會找一名法官來處理這件事,首先要證明該市的財政狀況糟糕到了夠資格申請破產的地步,然 後再努力證明,底特律的債權人以及市政府工作人員和退休人員的代表應該以低於先前預期的金額達成和解。
已經為這座城市工作了20年的辦公室助理戴安娜·羅賓遜(Diane Robinson)說,「我能理解一個苦苦掙扎的家庭為什麼要破產,可是,對於這樣規模的一個大城市,破產真的能奏效嗎?依賴固定收入的城市退休人員該怎麼辦?」
底特律商會(Detroit Regional Chamber)會長桑迪·K·巴魯阿(Sandy K. Baruah)說,「我們能做的最糟糕的事情就是忽略問題。如今,我們終於開始修正錯誤了。」
底特律時局的本質使它註定要受到市債券市場、公共部門工 會,以及全國各地其他面臨財政挑戰的城市的領導人的密切關注。自上世紀50年代中期以來,只有剛好超過60個美國城鎮、鄉村及縣根據《破產法》第九章提出 了破產申請,該法律章節是市政當局向法院提出破產訴訟程序的依據。
底特律的債務讓阿拉巴馬州傑斐遜縣相形見絀,後者經歷了美 國最大的市政破產案,該縣在2011年提出破產申請,債務達到40億美元左右。底特律是密歇根州最大的城市,人口是加利福尼亞州斯托克頓市的兩倍還多,斯 托克頓市於2012年申請破產,當時是申請破產的美國城市中人口最多的一個。
相反,把底特律推到這步田地的是多年積累的眾多因素,其中 包括:稅基縮水,卻仍要維持這樣一個139平方英里(約合360平方公里)的 龐大城市;不堪負荷的醫療保健和養老金成本;為應對債台高築的局面而一再進 行的繼續舉債;2008年以來這座城市運營預算中的年度赤字;以及老舊的電腦系統、糟糕的檔案記錄和普遍的職能障礙導致的城市服務運轉不靈。
居民多半看不到,與3月份奧爾來這裡監督重大決策之後的情 況相比,城市會有什麼立刻的轉變。奧爾是一名破產律師,許多人預期他會在法律程序中繼續運營底特律。市長戴夫·賓(Dave Bing)和底特律選舉的市議會仍會帶薪留職,還可以在日常運作中作出決策,不過奧爾可以剝奪這些權力。

 Detroit 2010/08
Detroit Goes From Gloom to Economic Bright Spot
The excesses that hurt automakers in the past — overproduction, bloated vehicle lineups and expensive rebates — are now gone, analysts say.

"Fundamentally this thing has been reshaped, resized and rethought."
SERGIO MARCHIONNE, who runs Chrysler and its Italian owner Fiat, on the American automobile industry.